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General

  • Versions
    • Centum XL
    • Centum CS
      • R1
        • Released in 1993
      • R2.07
        • Released in April 1997
    • Centum CS 1000
      • R1.02
        • Released in September 1997
        • Runs on Windows (Old Version), possibly Windows 95
      • R2.2
        • Released June 2000
        • Adds PHS4510 Expert Trend Viewer Package
        • Automatic Project Backup
        • Self Documentation Enhancement – Print By Items
      • R3.01
        • Released Jan 2001
        • Runs on windows 2000 Pro SP1. DOES not run on NT4.0
      • R3.03
        • Support windows XP
    • Centum CS 3000
      • R2 (STARTs AT R2… for whatever reason)
        • End of Hardware Supply Jan 2014
        • R2.2
          • Released June 2000
          • Adds LHS4510 Expert Trend Viewer Package
          • Adds Self Documentations
          • Supports 64 I/O signals per sequence table
          • Support Automatic Project Backup
      • R3
        • R3.01
          • Released Jan 2001 – Is a major release
          • Runs on Windows 2000
        • R3.08
          • Released October 2006
          • Adds LHS4800 Package – Which allows CAMS
          • Some enhancements (Engineering, Connectivity, Operation Monitoring)
        • R3.09
          • Released February 2010
          • Key code media uses CDs now
        • R3.09.50
          • Released November 2011
          • Suppots MS Office 2010 for LHS6530 Report Package
          • Supports Adobe Acrober/Reader V10.1
        • R3.09.57
          • Patch
          • SOE Server package supports SQL Server 2008
          • Supports SEM OPC
        • R3.09.86
          • Patch
          • Latest version as of 14/2/2014
    • Centum VP
      • R4
        • Start at R4.01
          • Released February 2008 – is a Major Release
          • Uses Windows Vista
          • Software is now distributed in DVD ROM (Previous version in CD-ROM)
          • HAS CAMS!!! - The previous LHS4800 (CAMS) package is bundled into the Standard Operation and Monitoring Function Package (LHS1100 / LHM1101)
      • R5
        • 5.01
          • Released August 2011 – is a Major Release
          • The key difference with R4 is that it supports Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008R2. Windows XP not recommended.
          • UGS (Unified Gateway Station) is released
          • CAMS – Alarm Setpoint management added
          • New software license management system
          • Does not use ActiveX controls anymore, and uses .NET components. Graphic files are now in the format of XAML files
        • 5.02
          • Released June 2012
          • Added Tag Name Hierarchy
          • Profibus Communication Module Introduced
          • CAMS Alarm Set Point Management Enhancement
          • Added Tab Controls
          • 5.02.05
            • A patch which fixes an a dangerous AOF status change (Alarm on Tag is turned off) after HIS is restarted
        • 5.03
          • Released June 2013 – Not many changes
          • Allows use of WAN Router
          • Centum Data Access Library supersedes Microsoft VB 6.0
    • If one has a DCS project, to know the DCS version, simply  open the ‘Project.atr’ file in Notepad and the version is mentioned there
      • image
      • In the following example, it is version R3.09
  • Product LifeTime
    • End of Order Entry
      • Orders are no longer accepted
    • End Of Supply
      • Comes Next, the product will no longer be manufactured and no longer be sold
      • Limited Stock
      • Generally 3 years after end of Order
    • End of Support
      • Comes Next, any existing product will no longer be supported.
        • Unable to Repair (MOST IMPORTANT!)
        • Unable to get second hand
      • Generally 5 years after end of Order

Staging

  • Typical FCS is installed on a 19” rack (48.26c)
    • image
  • 19” is the standard and most commonly used racks

Installation

  • Installation of CENTUM is very easy
  • Simply run the installation file and it’s all good
  • After installation, the license file needs to be put
  • After the license has been installed, restart the machine and the license items will appear.

Licensing

  • CENTUM CS 3000
    • Packages are licensed using ‘Keycode’ files.
    • The keycode files are of ‘.KCD’ file extensions.
    • these files are stored under “C:\CS3000\Keycode”
    • The following is an example of such keycode file
      • LHS5100-S11/N0003  <== This is the package number. The number after the slash will denote the package specific restrictions. In the following, N0003 means that this package is restricted to 3 stations uses.
      • XXXXXXX00003 <== This is the System (license) ID. This will be unique for each system. The XXXXXXX… denotes that this is a DEMO Keycode. Demo Keycodes only allows 90days of run time. If 90days is reached, the system will and the DEMO is FINISHED. However, If the system is kept on restarted before 90 days, the runtime counter resets And the demo will never end.
      • AUAUAIM9A7I5I5A2M6M6MAM2MAM2M6M6M6M6M2IAM0MAIUAMC4 <== This is the Keycode, which will challenge the validity of the claimed Package Number for that System ID.
      • Everytime CENTUM CS 3000 System view is launched, it checks if the keycodes are valid. If they are not valid, an error will be thrown.
  • For CENTUM VP
    • Packages are licensed under “.lkc” file. Short for license Key Code. The file is a small few kbs. This license file is given in a CD. It is always best to backup this license file and keep a copy of it.
    • Use license manager to add the license
    • Then add the stations (HIS/FCS), the Unused quantity will go down
    • The distribute the licenses
    • After distributing the packages should immediately appear without need to restart machine.
  • Managing Keycodes
    • If one needs to change the keycodes, just simply change the keycode set in the ‘C:\CS3000\Keycode’. Then run the installer to install missing packages which was not equipped in the original set

Hardware

  • Architecture 
    • Allows 16 Domains
    • Allows maximum of 64 stations per domain (16HIS, 48FCS)
    • HIS
      • 16 Maximum per domain
    • FCS
      • 48 Maximum per domain
      • Variants
        • FFCS
          • Compact Field Control Station with FIO
          • Uses FIO (Fast IO Bus) to extend the IO nodes
            • ESB (Extended Serial Backboard Bus)
              • 10m length
              • 125Mb/s
            • ER (Enhanced Remote Bus)
              • 128m + Fibre optic extension
              • 10 Mb/s
          • FIO Modules connects to the nodes (or racks), Using either:
            • KS Connector
            • MIL Connector
          • Can go up to 14 Nodes with extended license
            • 8 Slots per node
          • Models
            • AFV
        • KFCS
          • Distributed FCS with FIO
          • VNet Only
          • Models
            • AFF
        • PFCS
          • Compact FCS with local I/O
          • VNet Only
          • Models
        • LFCS
          • Distributed FCS with RIO
          • VNet Only
          • Models
            • AFS
      • Models Coding
        • [A][B][C][DD][E]
          • [A]
          • [B]
            • F means its a Field Control Station
          • [C]
            • V is for VNet/IP and FIO
            • F is for VNet and FIO
            • G is for FIO or RIO (depending on the next 2 digits)
            • S is for VNet and RIO
          • [DD]
            • 10 is Rack Mountable
            • 20 is with cabinet
            • 30 is 19” rack Mountable
            • 40 is with Cabinet
            • 71 is CENTUM V Migration type cabinet
            • 72 is CENTUM-XL Migration type cabinet
          • [E]
            • D means its duplexed
            • S means its Single
      • Most Commonly used controllers
        • For CENTUM CS 3000 – AFF
        • FOR CENTUM VP - AFV
    • Bus
      • VNet/IP
        • 500 Tags/second
        • Ethernet with Token Passing Application Layer
        • Two Control Busses
          • Bus1
            • Control Communication
            • If Fails, uses Bus 2
            • Recommended IP
              • 172.16.dd.ss
          • Bus2
            • Open Communication
            • Recommended IP
              • 172.17.dd.ss
              • or 192.168.dd+128.ss+129
          • The busses communicate with separate switches
          • Layer3 Switch used for inter domains
        • Vnet Card
          • Uses  DIP Switch to set station and domain number
          • VF701
            • Uses coaxial cable with bus converters
            • Conventional PCI Interface
          • VF702
            • Uses coaxial cable with bus converters
            • PCI-e interface
          • VI702
            • Uses Internet Cable
            • VNet IP
            • PCI-e interface x1
      • BCV (Layer 3 Switch)
        • ~1000 Tags/Second
      • VNet (Legacy)
        • 2 Coaxial Cable 
        • Separate Ethernet for ENet
    • Other Hardware
      • Vnet Router
        • Connecting legacy VNet with VNet/IP
      • Gateways
        • SIOS (System Intergation OPC Station)
          • Is an OPC Client that models (i.e. becomes another) FCS on VNet
          • Is used to communicate with OPCS Servers from another system
        • UGS (Unified Gateway Station)
          • is an OPC Client
          • The difference is that it can connect directly to STARDOM.
        • ExaOPC
          • Is an OPC Server
          • Allows other application and system to communicate with Centum
  • System Attribution Utility
    • Current Project
      • Project is downloadable to FCS
      • By design, system view will need at least a default or current project to ope
    • Default Project
      • Project is not downloadable to FCS
      • By design, system view will need at least a default or current project to open
    • User Defined Project

HISOPC

  • Each HIS also provides OPC Functionality
  • Package function ‘LHS2411’ needs to be included in CENTUM License
  • Capacity / Limitation
    • 4 Clients
    • 20 Groups
    • 1000 Item IDs/group
    • 500 item IDs/sec

Engineering

  • Projects
    • CENTUM CS Projects are stored in ‘C:\CENTUMXX\eng\bkproject’
      • The project is a folder which consists of many files. The entire folder is the project
  • FCS Configuration
    • image
    • Terminologies
      • % : Element
      • Z : IO
      • W : Word
    • Scan Rates
      • Speeds
        • High (200ms)
        • Medium (500ms)
        • Basic (1 Second)
      • What happens in a scan
        • O/S Functions
        • Read Input
        • Function Block Process
        • Write Output
        • Idle Time
          • is expressed in idle time per minute
    • Function Block Configuration
      • Function Block
        • Data Value
          • PV, MV, SV, CPV
        • Data Status
          • BAD, IOP
  • Regulatory Control
    • Types of Blocks
      • Input Indicator
      • Controller
      • Manual Loader
      • Signal Setter
      • Signal Limiter
      • Signal Selector
      • Signal Distributor
      • Pulse Count
      • Alarm
        • ALM-R
    • I/Os
      • Data Status
      • Input Data
      • Output Data
    • I/O Wiring Rules
      • Data Item must connect to a Data Terminal
        • E.g. PV (data Item) must connect to IN (data terminal)
      • Cascade Rule
        • OUT terminal must connect to SET terminal to Create a cascade connection
        • PV to SV does not work, it must always be OUT to SET
      • Switch Rule – Rule 1 and 2 holds across a switch for the source and destination modules on either side.
    • Area Connection
    • Function Block Processing
      • Input Processing
      • Output Processing
      • Alarm Processing
      • Block Modes and Statuses
        • O/S Out of service
        • IMAN
        • Trk
        • AUT
        • CAS
        • PRD- Primary Detect
        • RCAS – Remote Cascade
        • ROUT – Remote Output
    • PID Controller Block
      • Input/Output Compensation uses VN Input
      • Reset Limitting – Sets limit for intergral action on RL1 and RL2
      • image
        • PID
          • image
        • I-PD
          • image
          • To minimize impact of abrupt changes of the Setpoint which would impact the P and D function
        • PI-D
          • image
    • Yokogawa CENTUM PID Default values
      • P = 100
      • I = 20
      • D = 0
    • PID QUICK TUNE!
      • For Flow,
        • PB is high ~100 (also default value for Yokogawa Centum), to avoid
        • TI must be low (cause does not have high first order lag with control valve movement)
      • For
  • Calculations
    • Function Blocks
      • Numerical
        • ADD
        • MUL
        • DIV
        • AVE
      • Analogue
        • SQRT
        • LAG – First Order Lag
        • EXP
        • INTEG – Integrate / Totalizer
          • SW  0 – Reset and Run, SW 1 – Run, SW 2 - Stop
        • LD – Derivative (Lead Block)
        • LDLAG -  Lead Lag Block
        • DLAY – Delay/Dead Time
        • AVE-M – Average Moving
        • FUNC-VAR – Used to create a graph mapping
      • Logical
        • AND
        • ORD
        • NOT
        • TON – Rise Trigger
        • TOFF – Fall Trigger
      • Auxiliary
        • DSET
          • Similart to Manual Loader Block (MLD) except that it will pass SV rather than MV
        • BDSET
    • CALCU Block
      • Allows maximum of 20 statements ONLY
      • Uses SEBOL language
    • SEBOL
      • Structure
        • Program
          • Declarations
            • Local Variables
              • <Data Type> <Variable Name1>,<Variable Name 2>,etc
              • e.g. Float X1,X2,X3
            • Aliases
              • Generally used for either
                • Readability
                • If Tag Name has ‘-‘ as compiler will integrate it as a subtraction
              • Alias <Alias Name> <connection Item>
              • e.g. alias FLOW RV1
              • e.g. alias FLOW FI100.PV
            • Define
              • For constant
              • e.g. #define OPEN 2
                • Valve.CSV = OPEN
            • IT IS IMPORTANT FOR ALL DEFINITIONS TO BE BEFORE ANY CODE
          • Executables
        • End
      • General
        • *, /, ! are for Comments (! is for beginning of line)
        • \ is to separate single line into multiple lines
        • For Setting Block Modes (E.g. MAN,AUT,CAS), use culy brackets for assignment, e.g:
          • {FIC103.MODE.AUT}=1
          • {FIC103.MODE.MAN}=1
        • However, for Comparing Block Modes, just use the value. No need any “” or ‘’
            IF (FIC102.MODE<>AUT) THEN
                {FIC102.MODE.AUT}=1
            END IF
            IF ({10FIC202.MODE.CAS}<>1) THEN
                    {10FIC201.MODE.CAS}=1
                END IF
        • For PVs which has % engineering unit, e.g. Level and Control Valve Opening (MV), SEBOL does not assume 100% = 1 , Instead, 100%=100
      • Data Type
        • char*n
          • Character String
          • 8*n bits=
        • Integer
          • 16bits
        • Long
          • 32 bits (Integer)
        • Float
          • 32 bits
        • Double
          • 64 bits
      • IO Variables
        • Inputs
          • RV – In,
          • RV1 – Q01
          • RV2 – Q02, etc
        • Outputs
          • CPV
        • Internal Data Items that gets displayed in tuning parameter
          • P01
          • P02
          • P03
      • Arrays
          integer I,J,K,SUM,A[3,3]
          char*4 STAT[10]
          ......
          SUM = 0
          for I = 1 to 3
             for J = 1 to 3
                SUM = SUM + A{I,J]
             next@
          next@
      • Operators
        • +.-.*./,mod
        • Functions
          • sin(x), sqrt(x), exp(x), log(x)
          • Selector functions
            • dmax(x1,x2,x3…) – Select the maximum value
            • dmin(x1,x2,x3…) – Select the minimum value
            • lmax(x1,x2,x3…), lmin(x1,x2,x3…) – For real numbers
        • Comparisons
          • <,>,<=,>=,<>, ==
          • e.g.
            • if (x==1) then….
            • if (x==1) and (x==2) then
      • User Defined Functions
        • Declaration
          • integer function asdasdsa(Param1,Param2,Param3)
          • end
        • Example:
            integer setmv()
                setmv("FIC001",10.0,9.9)
               setmv("FIC002",12.0,11.0)
               setmv("FIC003",20.0,19.0)
               ......

            integer function setmv(tagname,value1,value2)
            char*0 tagname
            double value1,value2
            genname PID block1    ! declaration of a local generic name for the function "setmv"
                assign tagname to block1
               block1.MV = value1
               wait until(block.PV >= value2)

        • Example 2
            !calling program
            #define NUMDATA 100
            integer average( ),data(NUMDATA),ave
               ......
                  ! Value setup in the array
               ave = average(data,NUMDATA)
               ......
            !called function
            integer function average(buf,n)
            integer buf[*],n
            integer i
            long sum
               sum = 0
               for i = 1 to n
                  sum = sum + buf(i)
               next@
               return (sum/n)
            end
      • Tips
        • Use comparison operators in equations will result in a 1 or 0 value which can be resued in the calculation
          • e.g. CPV2 = RV * (RV1 > RV2)
        • Use switch pv value directly in equation to act as an if statement
          • PO1 = x1 * TX1SEL
        • Assign logic results directly to CPV
          • CPV = (RV > PO1) and (RV < PO2)
      • Control Statements
        • If
          • If (I100.PV > 10) then
          • Else if (fi100.PV > 1
          • Else
          • End If
          • If (FI100.PV > 23) FIC100.SV=80
        • Switch
          • Switch (DATASW.SW)
          • Case 1,2,7:
          • Case 5,8,9:
          • Otherwise:
          • End Switch
        • Goto
          • Goto FLOW
          • FLOW:
        • Exit
          • Exits the Program
        • Delay
          • delay 2000 ! delays the program 2000s
        • Wait Until
          • continues checking until expression becomes true
          • e.g
            • wait until (TIC001.PV > 50)
        • while
            while (N>0)
               SM = SM + 1
               N = N - 1
            wend@
        • repeat
            repeat
               SM = SM + 1
               N = N - 1
            until@ (N<=0)
      • Limitations
        • Curly brackets are needed statuses e.g
          • {FIC100.MODE.MAN} = 1
        • Cannot set HI, HH,LO,LL alarms
        • CALCU only allows 20 Line
      • Sample Programs / Examples
        • Timer Block Operation with SEBOL
            #include "std.h "        ! label TM**** is defined in std.h
            block TM TIM0001
               TIM0001.OP = TMSTAT        ! starNOISts the timer block
                  ......
               TIM0001.OP = TMPAUS        ! stops temporarily
                  ......
               TIM0001.OP = TMCONT        ! restarts
                  ......
               TIM0001.OP = TMSTOP        ! stop
        • A one-shot level reset which is triggerred by a graphic button. The calcublock name is called ‘RESETLEVEL’.
          • Setting done in graphic button
            • image
          • ResetLevel Calcu Block code

          IF (P01==1) then
              LIC101.PV=50
              P01=0
          End If

        • A Process simulator which has a Noise Component
          • The simulation graphic
            • image
          • The SIM Calcu block Float NOISE,N, PERIOD
            PERIOD = 10
            N = N+1
            IF (N>100) THEN
                N=0
            END IF
            NOISE = 3.141593/PERIOD/2*N
            FIC101.PV = FIC101.PV + (sin(NOISE) * 0.1) + (FIC101.MV-FIC101.PV) * 0.50
            IF (FIC101.PV<0) THEN
                FIC101.PV=0
            END IF
            LIC101.PV = LIC101.PV + (sin(NOISE) * 0.1) + ((FIC101.PV-FIC102.PV)*0.01)
            IF (LIC101.PV>100) THEN
                LIC101.PV=100
            END IF
            IF (LIC101.PV<0) THEN
                LIC101.PV=0
            END IF
            FIC102.PV = FIC102.PV + (sin(NOISE) * 10) + (FIC102.MV-FIC102.PV) * 0.35
            IF (FIC102.PV<0) THEN
                FIC102.PV=0
            END IF
    • Sequence Control Blocks
      • Switch Instrument Block
        • SI-2
          • Switch instrument with 2 inputs
          • Typically used for Shutdown valve with an OPEN limit switch  and CLOSE switch
            • The two switches are fed into the block
            • The block will give PV value of
              • 0 - Closed
              • 1 - Moving
              • 2 - Open
        • SI-1
          • Switch instrument with 1 input
        • SO-1
          • Switch instrument with 1 output
        • SO-2
          • Switch instrument with 2 output
      • Sequence Tables
        • Two different method of execution
          • Stepped
            • Step by Step execution
          • Non Stepped
            • All conditions are run all the time
        • Sequence Table Block
          • image
          • Under edit details:
          • image
            • C is Condition
            • A is Action
            • The big dotted screen containing Y and N are for rules.
              • The meaning of Y and N is a little confusing, as it is different for condition and action
                • For Condition, Y means True and N means False. e.g.
                  • if the Data is PV.ON, PV.ON = Y means that the condition is satisfied when PV is ON.
                  • if the Data is PV.0(as in Zero), PV.0 = N means theat the condition is satisfied when PV in NOT 0, i.e in this context is 1
                • For Action, Y means DO THE ACTION AND LATCH , N means DO NOT DO THE ACTION AND STOP LATCH
                  • If Tag.PV.1 = Y, the means set the PV = 1.
                    • This can also be used to start timer e.g. TIMER.OP.START= Y, this means start the timer
                  • If Tag.PV.1 = N, the means Do not set the PV =1, this in other words, means DO NOTHING.
                    • So basically, there is no point of using N is Action other than to STOP latches
                  • Note that The LATCH and STOP LATCH in only exclusive to the PV.H
                    • The PV.H is for Latching
                    • The PV.L is for Non Latching… which makes it the same as declaring as PV.1
                      • PV.L = PV.1
                      • Latching is confusing, it is better to use non latching hence the not need of using ‘N’ toggles in the rules
              • The following is an example
                • image
            • The Top second line (A1,A2,A3…) is the Step number
              • E.g. The steps needs to be set as A1, A2,A3,A4 and the then in A2,A3,A4 for sequential processing
              • The else is where to branch to if the condition is not satisfied
            • Data
              • This is the confusing part as it can be H,L,ON,CTUP and etc…how do we know? By General Rules:
                • Conditions
                  • Data ON
                    • Tag.PV.ON = Tag.PV.1 = Tag.PV equals 1
                  • Data OFF
                    • Tag.PV.PFF = Tag.PV.0 = Tag.PV equals 0
                • Actions
                  • Data H - Latched Output
                    • Tag.PV.H : Output will continue to be ON or 1 until the Action Tag.PV.H=N is obtained from the sequence Table
                  • Data L – Non Latched Ouput
                    • Tag.PV.L : Output will only be on for the duration that the Condition is Y i.e. SomeCondition.PV.ON=Y
        • Capacity
          • 64 Conditions/Actions
          • 32 Rules (Columns)
      • Timers
        • THe timer countup duration is set by PH data item
        • image
        • The timer keeps counting up, when it reaches PH, it will trigger CTUP and reset itself back, and count back up again – repeating this forever
        • Condition TimerTag.BSTS.CTUP = Y, trigger when the time elapsed the PH value
        • Action TimerTag.OP.Start, starts the timer
      • Logic Charts
        • Has 3 Components
          • Input Element
            • Must include value declaration such as similar like Sequence table, e.g.
              • Tag.PV.ON
              • Tag.PV.1
          • Output Element
            • Must provide action similar  like the sequece table, e.g.
              • Tag.PV.1 or Tag.PV.L (they are both similar)
              • Tag.PV.H
          • Logic Element
            • AND
            • OR
            • OND (on Delay)
            • OFFD (off Delay)
            • TON – Pulse on rising edge
            • TOFF – Pulese on falling edge

    Trends

    • Yokogawa CENTUM allows long term historical trending under the package license LHS6510 (For Centum VP).
    • The Trend look like the following
    • To call a trend,
      • on a HIS, press the ‘>’ button on the left pane ==> view ==> click on the trend
      • or call the trend block / Trend acquisiotn (From TG0101 to TG0X0Y)… where 0X is the block number, 0Y is the group number
      • Trend Block (Or Trend Acquisition Pen)
        • Has many Trend Groups
          • Tags are assigned in trend group (e.g. FIC101.PV, FIC101.SV….and etc)
          • 1 Group can be assigned with 8 Tags
          • There is a limit for number of groups which is 16
        • One can create a trend by simply right clicking and create new
          • However, there is a limit of the number of Trendblocks and this depends on the sampling period
            • 1,2,5,10 Minutes periods = 18 Trend block limit
            • 1,10 second periods = 16 Trend block limit
        • The following is a picture
        • image
        • The trend block data are stored in
          • C:\CENTUMVP\his\save\LongTerm\Trend
          • image
          • Each folder is a block (e.g. Block001.002 in the example above). The block folders are automatically created the moment a variable is set in the trend block
          • The database used is unknown but it only registers data if there are changes. If data is constant, the database does not add in data.
        • One trend block or trend acquisition pen has a constant sampling rate
    • Trends are set in:
      • System View ==> Each his ==> Configuration ==> Right click on trend acquisition pen assignment ==> Properties
        • image
          • The trend formats:
            • Continuous-Rotary Type
              • Older data is overwritte
            • Batch-Stop Type
              • Start command stat acquision, stop when stop command is recieved or maximum number of samples reached (2,880)
            • Batch-Rotary Type
            • Other-Station-Reference type (Other Station Acquisition Trend)
              • Gets trend from another HIS
          • The Recording Time is the time taken for the maximum number of samples with the selected sampling period.
            • This is ultimately how much data is stored in one file. When a person presses the back button, it will go back to the amount of this duration (unless there are straight lines)
          • The Trend Data Store Time is how much data to be stored
            • File are stored in ‘C:\CENTUMVP\his\save\LongTerm\Trend’, each folder represents each block
            • If Trend data store is set to 0, NO DATA will be stored and the corresponding ‘Block00X’ folder will not exist. DANGER, SETTING THIS TO ZERO WILL DELETE ALL TRENDS STORED IF IT WAS PREVIOUSLY STORED
            • The maximum number of samples in a file is fixed to 2,880.
              • HIS TRENDS only CAPTURES A SAMPLE when IT CHANGES, if the samples are constant, the 2,880 will not be fully used
            • Each File is 10.8MB and can store 10,800 points which is equivalent to 3.75 1 Second trends
      • System View ==> Each his ==> Configuration ==> Opencondef ==> Longterm Data Save
        • Historical Message
          • These are for alarms, so not relevant
        • Hourly/Daily/Monthly Closing
          • This stores the closing values of the trends
          • Closing values effect all trends and will be store at the following:
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        • Disk Space Used
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      • In any HIS, type ‘.SH’ ==> Long-term tab
    • Trends Data are stored in
      • C:\CENTUMVP\his\save\LongTerm\Trend\Block001
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      • The ‘.LTD’ files are current files
      • The ‘.000X’ files are currently running files
      • Notice that the trends are limited to 10.8MB in size
        • The 10.8M files stores 3 hours of data or 10,800 of data
    • Trends can be saved.
      • By default the trend saved are kept in:
        • C:\CENTUMVP\his\save\TREND, the file type is of ‘trf’
      • image This icon loads a saved trend file
      • image This file returns back to realtime runnning data after we have viewed the trend save

    HIS / Operator Console

    • Properties (Right Click His ==> Properties)
      • BuzzerACK
        • Define the HIS Station’s Buzzer ACK ID
        • When an alarm on this his is acknowledged, alarms from all other HIS which has the same buzzerACKID is acknowledged as well
      • Operation Group Identifier
        • Identifies the HIS as belonging to a Particular Group
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      • HIS Constants Builder
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        • Printing Alarms to TCP/IP port
          • All alarms are by default printed as msg1
      • Setting Printer
        • To access the printer type “.sh” in live name and go to the printer tab
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      • How to set where to which HIS an Alarm goes to?
        • Set under HIS configuration constants builder
        • Can define inclusion and exclusion list by FCS, area and etc. E.g. FCS0101,FCS0102,FCS0103
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        • One Example is for F&G alarms, where the alarm needs to go to all operators.
          • Say the F&G alarms are processed by SCS, the setting for the HIS  constants security should be as follows, one for the FCS this HIS is assigned to and one for the SCS.
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        • Alarms can also be organized in the plant hierarchy
          • This is a bit troublesome as each tag needs to be assigned to which plant hierarchy it goes to
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          • The Plant hierarchy is built using the project common ==> plant hierarchy
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          • After the Plant Hierarchy is built, it can be viewed under tool ==> Plant Hierarchy Viewer
            • The following will popup, this shows that TIC100 has been added to the milling equipment
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          • In the HIS Constant Builder ==> Security, “Milling” is added as shown below. This allows alarms from Milling tags to come to this FCS
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      • Function Keys
        • This is used to assign special shortcuts to the Yokogawa Special Operator Keyboard keyboard
        • 1-32 mapped to the 32 function keys on the keyboard

    HIS Graphics

      • Limitations
        • Data Links
          • 400 per window
        • Modifiers
          • 8 per object
          • 200 per Window
        • Graphs
          • 4 per window
        • Touch Targets
          • 400 per window
        • Overview Object
          • 64 per window
        • Instrument Faceplate
          • 16 per window
        • Generic Names
          • 400 per window
        • Generic Name Sets
          • 200 per window
      • Graphic Window
        • In Centum VP, a graphic page is called a Window
        • Creating New Graphic. Under HIS ==> Window ==> Right Click ==> Create New ==> Window
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        • Changing Graphic Window Properties
          • In Graphic Builder ==> File Tab ==> Properties
            • Attributes
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              • The standard graphic size for CENTUM VP is 1226x821
            • Window Linked Function
              • Allow certain actions when Window is opened or closed (e.g. launching a program)
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      • Graphic Builder
        • Layout
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        • Drawing Tools
          • Basic Shapes
            • Line
            • Rectangle
            • Arc
            • Ellipse
            • Circle
            • Arc
            • Fill Area
            • Poly Line
          • Text
        • Dynamic Data Display Tools
          • Data Character
            • To display numeric values linked to a process
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            • Data Link to a Tag (e.g. LIC101.PV)
          • Data Bar
            • To display value in the for of a process bar
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          • Data Arrow
        • Graph Tools
          • Line Segment Graph
      • Data Modifiers
        • Most Items in the graphic can be modified using modifies.
          • The Following shows an example of a modifier for a shutdown valve which it’s color will change (Closed-Red, Open-Green, Travelling-Yellow)
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      • Windows Types
        • Control Group
        • Graphic
        • Overview
        • Trend
      • Graphic Modifier

      HIS-TSE

      • AKA Remote operation and monitoring terminals
      • HIS-TSE is a special HIS which
        • Allows users to view a live running HIS from their workstation by remoting into the HIS-TSE
          • Typically, this is used to allow Office based engineers to view live DCS as how the operator views it.
        • has A special package (+ license)
          • For CS3000, it is the (LHS1150-S11/N000X)  Server for Remote Operation and Monitoring Function Package
            • The X denotes the number of clients that is allowed to connect to it
        • Is typically installed on a Windows Server. Can be installed on any windows that has terminal services.
            • Remote desktop uses TCP Port 3389. This port needs to be opened on the HIS-TSE
          • Has Windod
        • Has specials settings on windows terminal services
          • User always run as CENTUM
          • Has Automatic disconnection
          • Automaically starts ‘C:\CS3000\Progem\StartDesktop.bat’ when user logs on
      • OOP : Output open

      Project Common

      • Alarm Status
        • To Enable/Disable Alarm Sound, go to the .sh command ==> Buzzer Tab
        • Common Alarm Status’
          • NR : Normal
          • OOP : Output open alarm
          • IOP : Input open alarm
          • IOP- : Input open alarm (instrument overshoot to maximum)
          • HH, HI, LO, LL
          • DV+ : PV – Target PV  > 0
          • VEL : Velocity Alarm
          • MHI : Output High Alarm
          • CNF : Connection Failure Alarm
            • Normally IOP or OOP will occur together
        • In Centum VP Blocks, alarm status’ are represented in bits (1 to 32).
        • Can be seen from System View ==> Common ==> SysStsLabel ==> Alarm Status Tab
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          • The bits cannot be changed.
          • How to read the table:
            • For FSBSET block, bit 11 is OOP alarm
            • for PID block, bit 10 is OOP alarm.
        • Alarm Processing
          • In Centum VP, the Alarm Processing Table Builder controls the Alarm Priority and Color
          • The Table Builder is accesssed from System View ==> Common ==> AlmTbl
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            • Think of this table as a ‘Colour Schema’
            • The table structure consists of:
              • 32 Columns
                • 16 Columns for Color (1 to 16)
                • 16 Columnms for Priority (1-16) (Side by Side with Color) 
                  • The number 1-16 represents the Alarm Level which is set in a function block.
                    • The Example below shows setting for Alarm Level 6 which is denoted as user(6) in the Yokogawa System:
                    • image
                  • Cross reference between column and row(bit) will determine the alarm’s priority
                  • It is to note that Colum 1 to 4 is un-editable because they are used by
                    • Column 1 : Default High Alarm
                    • Column 2 : Default Medium Alarm
                    • Column 3 : Default Low Alarm
                    • Column 4 : Default Logging
                    • Column 6 to 16 : Custom Columns, User editable
              • 32 Rows
                • The Row represents the alarm bit
                • What the Alarm bit is, is defined in the Alarm Status Table
                  • Can be seen from System View ==> Common ==> SysStsLabel ==> Alarm Status Tab
                    • image
                    • The bits cannot be changed.
                    • How to read the table:
                      • For FSBSET block, bit 11 is OOP alarm
                      • for PID block, bit 10 is OOP alarm.
                • These colours will eventually be reflected in Block Statuses.
                • If someone asks what the color represents, the answer should be ‘It depends!’. Cause differnet site will use different colour schemas.
                  • e.g some site may use Orange colour for HI and LO alarm, but red colour for HIHI and LOLO alarms.
          • The colour of alarms are set in the Alarm Processing Table Builder. This is accessed from System View ==> Common ==> AlmTbl
        • Observation:
          • As alarms are set in the function block based on a particular alarm level, by default, the Alarm Priority will be the same for all alarm identifiers in the block
            • For example if a PID block is set to Medium Level, all HH,HI,LO,LL alarms will be set to Priority Medium Level
              • image
            • This is why, in most cases the Alarm level is set to a custom level e.g. ‘User(6)’.
              • image
            • So that the HH, HI, LO,LL alarm priorities can be set differently from the Alarm Processing Table:
              • image
              • What the bit is, is referenced from the SysStsLabel ==> Alarm Status Tab
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                • Notice however that the ‘PVI’ block is not listed in the Alarm Status Tab Column
      • Security
        • Users
          • Users are managed under system view ==> Common ==> Security. This is the security builder 
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        • Privilege Level
          • When a user is using the Operator HIS Console, they will be given rights based on their privilege level
          • A user is ASSIGNED a privilege
          • There are 3 default privilege levels (S3 is highest privilege)
            • S1
              • Monitoring function
              • By default OFFUSER is assigned with this
            • S2
              • Operation function
              • By default  ONUSER is assigned with this
            • S3
              • Maintenance function
              • By default ENGUSER is assigned with this
          • 7 Customizable level
        • Security Level
          • In Centum VP, every function block has a security level to which a user is allowed to manipulate it
          • There are 8 Levels that can be assigned to a function block (Level 8 is highest security, 4 is default)
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        • When a Block is set to a particular security, depending which privilege level is granted to the user, the user is able to do the following functions:
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      • Project Attribution Tool
        • Current Project
          • Is the live running Project
          • Should only be set when connected to an FCS or not it will give an error
          • When test function is run, it bypasses all physical FCS IOs
        • Default Project
          • is the current project used but not live
          • When test function on FCS is run, it simulates a virtual FCS
      • Alarm Distribution
        • To assign alarms to different Operators, there are three ways
          • Assign by User Group
          • Assign By HIS
          • Assign in CAMS
        • Assign by User
          • Under System View ==> Project Common ==> User Security
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            • In here, one can write FCS or Equipment Name
        • Assign by HIS (MOST COMMONLY USED)
          • System View ==> Under HISXXX ==> Configuration ==> HIS Constants ==> Security Tab
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        • Assign by CAMS AlmGroup
          • Under System View ==> Project Common ==> CAM For HIS
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            • Can set by user or user group

      CAMS (Consolidated Alarm Management Software)

      • General
        • What is CAMS?
          • Consolidated Alarm Display
          • Alarm Documentation / MOC
          • Advanced Alarm Management
            • Shelving
            • Static Suppression
            • Dynamic Suppression
            • Eclipsing
            • Filtering
        • What CAMS does NOT do
          • Alarm Archiving
          • Alarm Reporting
          • Won’t work systems other than Yokogawa CENTUM and SCS
        • Versions Supported
          • Is an optional feature for Centum CS 3.08 and above. Have to buy it though…
          • For CENTUM VP, it’s free!
      • CAMS Integration with CS
        • CAMS is enabled from the HIS Utility under the Start Menu.
          • image 
          • This replaces the old Alarm Display of Centum
          • Maximum Size of Alarm Buffer
            • By default set as 2000.
            • Is the maximum alarm that can be stored on CAMS for a HIS
            • NOTE!! If the number of alarms exceed the buffer, CAMS will start deleting outstanding acknowledged alarms.
              • To prevent this, keep alert on the CAMS Maximum Alarm buffer size. CENTUM will only give out ONE alarm and ONE Recover message to warn the user
                • Buffer Exceed 80% ALARM
                • Buffer is within 70% RECOVERY MESSAGE
            • The Buffer also Includes SYSTEM ALARMS. Make sure system alarms are deleted (using Manual Reset) to clear the buffer.
            • The buffer is before any filters are apply, this means even if filters are apply, the buffer will still fill up
            • All alarms and events will be stored in the buffer
          • Download Master
            • ‘Set this HIS as Download Master’ is used to tell CAMS that this HIS is where the CAMS database is stored
            • The Download Master is used for the equalization of the “Configurator of CAMS for HIS”, which allows setting of
              • Message Monitor Configuration
              • Style Settings
              • Alarm Generator
            • the Start Menu ‘CAMS for Configurator’ will not work is the machine is not the Download master. Typically this will be HIS0164
          • When detailed setting is pressed, it lists down all HIS’s that the CAMS information is downloaded to from the Download master
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          • Connection to SCS is done via OPC under the OPC A&E Server Connection
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        • What happens to AOF Alarms?
          • In CS3000
            • When AOF is ON,
              • if alarm is activated, will not show up in the CAMS screen
              • if alarm deactivated, will not show up in the CAMS screen, however if an alarm is already in CAMS list, it will be crossed out from the list
            • When AOF is OFF,
              • if alarm is activated, it will show up in the CAMS screen
          • In Centum VP
        • In Centum CS, without CAMS, alarm priorities are defined by tag. This means that if Tag FIC101 is a Critical Alarm, All FIC101 parameters will be critical as well such as HH, PH, LL, IOP alarms
          • RECAP! Alarm Priorities are assigned in the function block parameter under ‘Alarm Level’
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          • Equalization Scope can  be checked using the Redundancy Ring check tool
            • CENTUM VP Installation Folder/CAMS/tool/CAMSInsideConditionCheckTool.exe
            • image 
            • If redundancy not working, check:
              • Open the HIS Utility dialog box. Click the Detailed Setting button on the CAMS for HIS tab. In the Detailed Setting dialog box, are the HISs to be equalized to each other selected correctly?
              • Was a project common download done on the HIS
              • Was the computer rebooted after making settings on the CAMS for HIS tab of the HIS Utility?
              • Is there a network problem? (Can each HIS ping others?)
              • Has the Windows firewall been set up properly if it is ON? (In the case of legacy security mode, it is OFF by default.) If it is ON, open a port required for CAMS for HIS by referring to the Security Guide.
      • CAMS Alarm Processing Behaviour
        • Each HIS queries alarms from FCS. As it obtains the FCS alarms, it will put in the buffer
          • There is no configuration with this, as long as the HIS and FCS is on the same project, the HIS will query EVERY FCS in the project
          • From a CAMS point of view, the HIS CAMS Buffer will contain alarms from all FCS
        • Each HIS has it’s own buffer. The buffer is expected to be the same in all HIS by using Equalization
          • Equalization is the process of sending message operation from a HIS to other HISSES,
            • For example if one HIS acknowledges, the equalization process will pass this ackownledgement scope to other HISSES and that HIS will get it’s alarm acknowledged
        • In CAMS, the CAMS Server equalizes all alarm information to other HIS’ within it’s EQUALIZATION SCOPE.
          • This is to allow alarm operations (e.g. acknowledgement, shelving, manual resetting) done in one HIS being transferred to other HISSES
            • IMPORTANT NOTE : EQUALIZATION ONLY EQUALIZES ALARM OPERATIONS, the actual alarm itself is queriedUnd by each HIS to each FCS.
          • The equalization scope is set in the HIS UTILITY ==> CAMS FOR HIS TAB ==> DETAILED SETTING
            • image
          • NOW HERE IS TTHE  CONFUSING PART … EVEN if equalization scope is set, there is another scope which is the OPERATION GROUP. This also determines which HISSES SHARES THE Equalization (i.e. Alarm Operations)
            • Operation Group is set under each HIS Property (Right Click on a HIS)
              • image
            • For COMMON Operation groups, one can set it as A*, which covers A1,A2,A3 and etc
              • A change in this will require a Rightclick ==> Load ==> Download to HIS
              • Note that for receiving alarms, it will be determined by the Alarm Distribution (See Alarm Distribution). This is just for acknowledgement/manual reset.
            • IT IS ALWAYS BEST TO SET THE OPERATION GROUP IDENTIFIER SAME FOR ALL! THIS IS THE COMMON PRACTICE
              • If operation group is set differently, an acknowledged operation on an alarm will not be sent to other unit. This will cause the alarm to fill up the BUFFER.
          • All other CENTUM HIS level filters (Such as the HIS Constand Builder) DO NOT effect the Alarm Operation Sharing. These are just filters applied after CAMS Buffer
        • Each HIS has its own Alarm Buffer. It keeps and maintains it individually.
          • This is the maximum number of MESSAGES that can be stored in the Alarm buffer of CAMS in the HIS. Limit is 2000 but can be increased to 10,000 via special tokuchu request to sales people.
          • The operations on the buffer is done via HIS operations throughout the network within Equalization Scope and Operation Group. For example, If an acknowledgement is done on HIS0261, HIS0261 will first verify which HISSES are in its same Equalization scope and Operation. It will then send the acknowledgement message to the satisfying HISSES.
          • There will be some HISSES which would be in more than one Operation Group. One typical example would be a common HIS TSE. HIS TSE’s Equalization scope would typically be configured to include all HISSES and the Operation group will be in the form of a wildcard e.g. ‘*’, which means it’s in all Operation Groups. In this case, HIS TSE will therefore receive message buffer updates from all HISSES. (There is thus a higher chance for HIS TSE’s buffer to reach it’s 2000 alarm limit first)
            • NOTE : THIS IS NOT A GOOD PRACTICE AS IT MAY FILL UP THE CAMS ALARM BUFFER
          • Now, here’s come the bit that makes things a little confusing…..
            • As we know that each HIS stores its own buffer, the alarm displayed in the Operator screen of that HIS, may not include all alarms in the Buffer.
            • This is because each HIS has been configured to a specific “monitoring range”. This is set in System View èHISXXXX è Configuration è Opecon Def (HIS Constants) è Security Tab
              •  clip_image002
            • As the alarms come into the CAMS buffer, this HIS then checks whether the alarm matches the monitoring range. Only when it does match will it display the Alarm.
            • So, there may be cases when the displayed alarm is less, but the buffer holds alarms which are outside the monitoring range, making the buffer size large.
            • When the buffer hits 2000 alarms, CAMS will start to delete OLD alarms. The order of alarm priority deletion is as follows:
              • First, The OLDEST Acknowledged Alarm will be deleted first. Even if the alarm is in an ALARM State
              • Second, The OLDEST pair of a similar alarm (The newer pair must exist). Even if alarm has not been ACKNOWLDG
              • Finally, the OLDEST Low priority Alarm. Even if alarm has NOT been ACKNOWLEDGED
            • Some of my personal Observations on this:
              • Why does it not first delete alarms that have been recovered but not acknowledged????? Wouldn’t that be better??? ==> I think the idea is that Yokogawa thinks that an Alarm Acknowledged takes precedence.
          • Messages kept in Buffer include
            • Messages Collected by HIS
              • This includes SYSTEM ALARMS, Return To NORMAL, ALARMS
            • Messages Collected by OPC Server
            • Shelved Alarms
          • Messages not included in Alarm Buffer
            • Suppressed Messages by CAMS
        • Apart from Alarm Buffer, Each HIS stores information of Alarm operations called the “Alarm Buffer Replay”
          • Information includes AON/AOF operation, Shelving, Manual Resetting and etc
          • The purpose of this is so that when a HIS is restarted, it will obtain the Alarm Buffer Replay from another HIS, which basically tells it what happened during its downtime period
          • This Alarm Bufffer replay has a Limit (Either 7 Mb or 100 MB.. not sure)
            • One known issue for this is when Alarm group is defined with ‘Apply to All’, this means that when an alarm is acknowledged, the replay buffer records this as ALL ALARMS have been ACKNOWLEDGED. If there are 1000 alarms in the group, there will be 1000 Alarms in the replay buffer (even if the alarm is not active)
        • Known ISSUES
          • Number of System Messages differ amongst HIS
            • This is due to some System messages are specific to that HIS only and not transferred to others. e.g HIS Alarms, HIS Communication, HIS Operations, HIS Peripheral alarms
          • When a HIS is restarted
            • New alarm condition changes are obtained from another HIS (a replay buffer)
            • It is to note that this replay sometimes get clunky in terms of it’s order of arrival, because this replay buffer will come in together with the alarm status changes picked up by VNET. Due to this sometimes it is seeb that an Acknowledgment or a shelve on one HIS is not transferred to the restarting HIS.
            • Due to this problem, THERE IS ALSO a dangerous problem that an alarm may go to AOF during a HIS restart. CENTUM VP path R5.02.05 resolves this.
        • To Improve CAMS Performance
          • Keep number of messages small (via acknowledgment)
          • NOT to define ‘APPLY TO ALL” for alarm group
          • Reduce number of ALARM GROUPS and SHELVES
          • Reduce number of FILTERS
          • Apply Centum VP Patch R5.02.05
          • NOT TO EXTEND THE ALARM BUFFER SIZE (This is done via Registry Tokuchu, to extend alarm buffer to 10,000)
        • There are some system Alarms which CAMS will not Equalize to other HIS’s
      • CAMS Consolidated Alarm Display 
        • Limitation of Old Alarm Monitor old Alarm Monitor
          • Alarm Flooding. CAMS Solves this by:
            • Eclipsing
            • Shelving
          • Difficult to find alarms or a set of alarms. CAMS Solves this by:
            • Filtering
          • Uninformative. CAMS Solves this by:
            • Having a detailed alarm Display
        • Customizable view for different users
          • For R3: Start Menu ==> CAMS for HIS Configurator ==> Tools ==> Message Monitor Configuration
        • The Filters Pane shows alarm count
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          • (A/B/C)
            • A : Number of Standing (or Active) Alarms, regardles if it has been acknowledged or not. When alarm returns back to normal, the value drops.
            • B : Number of Unacknowledged Messages. Even return to normal messages are counted here.
              • When alarm are acknowledged, value drops.
              • Since, for chattering alarms, CAMS by default only shows 10 Messages per source, this is why when chattering alarm occurs, the value does not increase
              • In my opinion this value is useless, just get rid of it.
            • C : Total number of Messages, regardles if it has been acknowledged or not
            • IN my opnion, just leave A on and turn off B and C in CAMS Display ==> Tools ==> Options ==> Filters Pane.
        • Some notes:
          • For chattering alarms, CAMS by default only shows 10 Messages per source. Even when eclipsing is on. As shown below:
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          • The message monitor for CAMS only stores a maximum of 2000 alarms.
            • The Alarms are stored in the following folder
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          • The Default Color Settings
            • For SYstem Alarms
              • RED and BLINKING = Alarm is ON but not YET been Acknowledged
              • RED = Alarm in ON and Has been Acknowledge
              • GREEN = Alarm Has been Recovered
      • CAMS Alarm MOC / Database
        • CAMS provide a master alarm database for Alarm MOC which automatically integrates directly into CENTUM CS.
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          • Detection : should be enabled (To see the alarm in CAMS)
          • Alarm Group : is the Alarm Group in CAMS, which is used in Suppression
            • NOTE: VERY IMPORTANT : THE GROUP NAME MUST NOT HAVE A SPACE IN BETWEEN OR NOT DOWNLOAD WILL FAIL!!
        • CAMS alarm settings work on top of CENTUM CS. It has it’s own database
          • Master Database is stored in ‘C:\CS3000\CAMS\Client\master\database\Client\Config’
          • Working Database is stored in ‘C:\CS3000\CAMS\configurator\work\database\Client\Config
        • In CAMS, the 3C’s of Alarm Management (Cause, Consequence, Corrective Action) can be documented in the Guide note/
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        • An Alarm Rule assistant is also available which automatically determines the Alarm Priority and Detection (Whether it’s enabled or not).
          •  image
          • To access the Alarm Rule Assistance:
            • For Centum CS3000: CAMS for HIS Configurator ==> Tool ==> Alarm Rules Assistance ==> View.
            • For CENTUM VP: System View ==> Common ==>CAMS for HIS Alarm Builder ==> Tool ==> Alarm Rule Assistant ==> Display
        • Alarm MOC CSV File import does not work in Centum CS 3000 CAMS.
      • Sorting/Filtering
        • Operators can sort and filter alarm messages by creating specific filters.
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          • Conditional Expression can be multi lined.
            • Condition: True, False, not case sensitive.
            • Attribute: Case sensitive
            • Pattern or Rule: Case sensitive
            • Comparator: =, <=, <, >=, >
            • Logic Gate: “not,” “and,” and “or” in the order of priority. Not case sensitive, “and” can be omitted.
        • Sometimes one is unable to delete certain filters. This happens when the filters were created from the CAMS for HIS: Configurator. The filter needs to  be deleted from there.
      • Eclipsing
        • Alarm messages that are repeatedly activated by the same tag can be collapsed and displayed as a single line. Eclipsing reduces the number of alarm messages that are displayed and allows operators to identify critical alarms more easily.
        • NOTE: When Eclipsing occurs, the alarm count is not effected. It still counts each chatter of an alarm as one
      • Shelving
        • Alarms of lower priorities can be temporarily “shelved.” Operators can shelve alarms and filters manually, and alarms identical to these shelved alarms can be automatically moved to the shelves. If there are any related recovery messages, they can be also shelved. If a filter is shelved, alarms that match the filter's rules can also be automatically moved to the shelves.
        • Three types of shelving:
          • Continuous Shelving (MOST COMMONLY USED) 
            • Any further alarms from the shelved alarm, will be moved to the shelf, until a predetermined period.
            • After the Shelf duration has finished, the shelved alarms remains in the shelf.
            • Any further alarms will not be moved to the shelf.
            • THIS IS THE MOST COMMONLY USED SHELVING.
            • What Happens during shelving
              • When alarm is shelved, the alarm will dissapear fom main screen and go to the shelve window
              • While on this shelved states, any new alarms (if it chatters) will be suppressed.
              • After the shelve state finishes, the icon of the alarm will change. The alarm will still STAY in the shelve. it will not be UNSHELVED. This is in accordance with ISA 18.2 which highlight the dangers of AUTO UNSHELVING as it will cause a massive influx of alams
              • However, if the alarm chatters after the shelve state finishes, sound will be audible.
              • The alarm needs to be unshelved manually by moving it to the main window
          • One-shot Shelving (USELESS)
            • Simply puts an alarm in a shelf, nothing special.
          • Auto-Shelving (DANGEROUS)
            • When an alarm meets a particular criteria, the alarm is automatically shelved. What this essentially do is delaying alarms.
            • The criteria must be dragged and dropped from the filters pane to the shelfing pane
            • The picture below show Auto shelving ‘fghgfh’ in action
              • image .
              • The word ‘Auto-Shleving’ is shown in the Shelved filter.
        • Does shelving in one HIS effects other HIS? This depends on Extent of shelving definition.
          • There are two extents
            • User – The shelve occurs in all HISs where the user is logged on to (MOST COMMONLY USED)
            • System – The shelves occurs everywhere
          • This is configured in the CAMS for HIS Configuration.
        • Minimum Shelving time is 1 minute, cannot shelve lower that that.
        • Maximum Shelving time is
          • For CS3000, 24 Hours
          • For VP R5.03, 10 Days (23 Hours and 59 Minutes)
      • Load Shedding
        • If too many alarms are generated in a short period of time due to an unexpected event, predefined filters can be automatically activated to reduce the operators’ monitoring load.
        • This is set under tools ==> Options ==> Filter Pane tab ==>
          • image
            • If within 120s, more than 6 alarms come in, load shedding will start.
        • TESTED ON CS3000 R3.08 – DID NOT WORK
      • Suppression
        • Alarm suppression (also known as Static alarm suppression) is the act of suppressing a group of alarms. For example, disabling all alarms permeating from a shut down unit/Equipment.
        • When an Alarm is Suppressed, it will emit a ‘RECOVER (Suppression) Message’, meaning the alarm has been recovered, by means of Alarm Suppression
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        • When an Alarm is Unsuppressed,
          • If the Alarm is still ON : it will emit a ‘ALARM (Suppression) Message’, meaning the alarm has came out of suppression and alarms out again. Buzzer will Sound
          • if the Alarm has gone OFF:  Nothing will happen. Buzzer will not sound
        • In CAMS, Suppression is done by running the program:
          • C:\CS3000\program\BKHCAMS_SON.exe FCS0101
            • This Suppresses all alarms in FCS0101
            • The result of suppression will be displayed in the Suppression window
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          • The suppression can be cancelled by pressing the ‘Cancel’ button or by running the cancelling program:
            • C:\CS3000\program\BKHCAMS_SOF.exe FCS0101
        • Suppression works on FCS and also on CAMS group.
          • The CAMS group is set in the CAMS alarm database in the CAMS for HIS : Configurator
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          • On top of that, Permissions must be allowed for the User to suppress the alarm group. This permission is given in the CAMS for HIS : Configurator ==> Alarm Group Tab ==> Alarm Sub State Change
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      • Set Point Management / Enforcement
        • NOTE: This feature is only available in CENTUM VP. Not available in CAMS for CS300
        • CAMS Provide an easy to use Alarm Setpoint Management System.
        • A Master Alarm Setpoint is set in the CAMS Alarm database using the CAMS for HIS Alarm Builder
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        • Once this is saved, any discrepancy can be seen from the Deviation Report Window, which can be accessed from the Plant Menu ==> Right Click
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          • Any deviations will be shown here
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          • Enforcement can be easssssily done by ticking the alarm and clicking on the Enforcement button
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      • Manual Reset
        • Manual reset is a feature to automatically force the alarm to reset from CAMS. The reset alarm will ‘return back to normal’ in CAMS.
        • It is useful to be used for system alarms where manual reset is needed to delete System Alarm Messages
        • However, in DCS, the alarm is not return back to normal. It will still be there.
          • For this reason, this feature should not be used and should be disabled. To disable this feature, simply remove the manual reset ICON and the menu tool bar.
          • However,  Manual Reset when used on operator guides
        • Sometime Manual Reset is not Allowed
          • Check under SYSTEM VIEW ==> HISXXXX ==> Configuration ==> HIS Constants Builder ==> Security Tab ==>
            • HIS Attribute must be = 1
            • Aknowledgement must be set (e.g.as ALL)
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          • User must belong to group other than S1 (i.e. S2 and S3 is fine)
          • Manual Reset must be permitted in the CAMS for HIS Alarm Builder
            • For system alarms, manual reset is permitted by default
            • For Process Alarm, manual reset needs to be allowed at the alarm level under System View ==> Common ==> CAMS for HIS
      • Historical Viewer
        • Accessed from the Left Banner ==> Tool button ==> Historical Report
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        • CAMS stores its historical data in several files which is in (C:\CENTUMVP\CAMS\hist)
        • The historical viewer will only record equalized alarms. Alarms which are specific to a HIS such as some system Alarms will not be recorded here
      • Alarm Generator
        • Used for Alarm Simulation
      • Other
        • If a user cannot do something in CAMS, change its attribute in the CAMS for HIS : Configurator
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      CART (Comparative Analysis Reporting Tool)

      • General
        • Versions
          • 1.02
          • 1.03
            • Provides a Data retrieval tool which allows data extraction for CENTUM VP R5.02 WITHOUT need of CART Software/Machine.
            • For VP R5.01 and below need dedicated machine.
        • Starting from CENTUM VP R5.02 onwards,
          • CART modules has literally been built into the system. There is no need to install CART Software anymore.
          • There is also no need for an OPC Server.
          • A Special Data retrieval tool is needed to get the CART related data
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        • List of KPIs in CART
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      • Installation STEPS (For Centum VP R5.01 and Below)
        • Prerequisites
          • Install SQL Server 2008 R2
            • Does not need to restart machine after install
          • Install HIS OPC Client
            • If Connecting to HISOPC
            • Does not need to restart machine after install
          • Install EXA OPC Client
            • For Connecting to EXAOPC
            • After Installation EXAOPC should appear under programs and features
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            • Needs to restart machine after install
        • CART Software
          • CART Acquisition
            • Create Database
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              • Use login ‘sa’, ‘vpsc_cart_1234’
            • Does not need to restart machine after install – Can safely restart later.
          • CART Comparer
            • Create Database
            • Does not need to restart machine after install
          • CART Raw Data Import Tool NOT NEEDED TO BE INSTALLED
          • Access Control Permissions
            • Gives users specific access controls
              • A RESTART WILL AUTOMATICALLY BE DONE AFTER THIS
          • Launch Security Settings tool
            • After Restart IT Security setting tool we appear
            • This takes a very long time
            • RESTART Machine Again
        • Post Installation
          • Run ‘CreateCEAProcess.exe’ / ‘CreateOPCProcess'.exe’
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            • Location of CreateCEAProcess.exe:
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            • For HISOPC, MAKE SURE CEA_PROCESS IS UNDER CTM_OPC / CTM_OPC_LCL GROUP
            • For EXAOPC, MAKE SURE CEA_PROCESS IS UNDER OPC_USER GROUP
          • Verify OPC Server Connection using ZOPDACLient tool
          • Create CART Time Synchronization Schedule
            • Create a batch file i.e. “TIMESYNC.BAT” with following command:
            • NET TIME \\<STN...> /SET /Y
              • Example: NET TIME \\HIS0154 /SET /Y
      • Configuration
        • Data Retrieval Tool
          • Used for CENTUM VP 5.02 and above
        • Configurator
          • Default Username Password : Administrator, Cart
      • Maintenance/Operations
        • CART Databases
          • CART uses SQL Server and has three databases!
            • Acquisition Database
              • This is where the CART initial configurations are kept
              • There can be MANY Acquisition Databases. Yes, this is the interesting part.
                • This maybe used for segregation purpose. One may have two separate companies in the Control System which want two separate report
                • Another interesting fact is that both Acquisition may run simultaneosly as one instance of the service.
              • To Create a new Acquisition Database
                • Goto: C:\Program Files (x86)\CARTComponents\Configurator\CreateCartDatabase.exe
                • You can have more than one acquisition database operating in CART
              • To configure a particular Acquisition Database
            • Comparer Database
            • Raw Database
      • Data Retrieval
        • For CENTUM VP R5.01 and Below
        • For CENTUM VP R5.02 and Above
          • Select a HIS to collect data from. Wise not to use HIS0164 as data collection takes long time and may slow HIS down
          • Create “CTM_HISIS” group on the HIS.
          • Create “hisis” account in “CTM_HISIS” group on the gateway HIS. Password is “ykgw_hisis”.
          • Find 8GB free HD Space (Either on HIS, or On USB)
          • Create A temoprary folder on the HIS
          • Copy Data Retrieval tool from CARTDVD:\tools\DataRetrievalTool to the HIS machine on the Temporary folder
          • Run Data retrival tool, insert IP address, test connection and then start receiving data
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          • Type in folder location, output foldern then click Get Engg Data
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          • Type in the HIS name and type connect. user Passord should be '”hisis” “ykgw_hisis”
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          • Check if all HIS are available there
          • Set A&E Collection to the current HIS
          • Click Get Acq Data
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          • Data acquisition will take about 10 minutes to 3 hours, depending of number of alarms and events
          • The following shows when acquisition has completed
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          • CEA data folder is created on the temporary folder. Folder name of CEA data is “Rootyyyymmdd_hhmmss”.
          • Copy the Temporary Folder
          • Delete the Temporary folder on the HIS
          • Done

      CEA Report

      • The CEA Report is the final product of CART.
      • Part of annual service contract
      • Six Groups
        • Alarm
          • Aim
          • Services Provided
            • Fundamental nuisance alarm reduction
              • Products
                • Exaplog
            • Alarm System Design
              • Re-engineering alarm management system
              • Products
                • CAMS
            • Operational State based alarm management
              • Dynamic Alarm threshold settings
                • Simple DCS Logic/Sequence Table
                • OPC Scripting
                • AAASuite
        • MOC
          • Aim
            • To achieve plant operation with a point of accountability and transparences
          • Methodology
            • Record alarm limit changes
            • Records operator actions
        • Automatic Control
          • Aim
            • To Achieve stable plant operations
          • Services
            • Regulatory Control Stabilization: PID Tuning
            • Advance Process Control / MVC
        • Manual Intervention
          • Aim
            • To Reduce it!
          • Service
            • Best Practice pilot via Exapilot
        • HMI
          • Measures
            • Number of Panels called by operators. A well designed HMI graphics do not require frequent display changes.
          • Aim
          • Service
            • Re-engineering of DCS Graphics
        • RASIS (Reliability, Availability, Serviceability, Integrity, Security)
          • Service
            • On-line call centre
            • PM Service
            • Products
              • ISAE (Insight Suite Asset Excellence)
      • Target is set based on 1st quartile of worldwide participants NOT based on EEMUA or ISA18.2
      • Report Structure
        • Summary
          • Ratings and Quartiles
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            • Quartile will be based on WORLDWIDE participants, not just limited to that industry.
        • Alarm Effectiveness
          • Summary
            • Quartile Analysis Chart
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              • This chart is confusing as it start at the top. The height of each bars is the Number of alarms.
          • Alarm and Event Trend
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            • Unit is Events Per Day (NOT PER OPERATOR)
          • Plant Stability
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            • The lesser the interventions, the better
            • The lesser the alarms, the better
          • Operator Workload
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            • Output look number means the number of PID and MLD blocks per operator
            • The target here is to drop down alarms to the green zone, and increase the output loop number. The higher the output loop number, the more efficient the operator is.
          • No of Alarms
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            • Unit: Alarms per 10 minute per operator
            • ISA 18.2 Target
            • EEMUA Target : 1 alarm per 10 minutes
          • No of Alarms Monthly Trend
            • Unit: Alarms per day ( Per Operator Excluded)
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            • The Target 1 alarm per 10 min, is translated by multiplying with 144 and number of operators (In the above example, it is 4)
          • No of Alarms Shift Trend
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          • AON/AOF Comparison
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            • Number of alarms per day in AON/Mode
          • No of Repeated Alarms
            • How it is counted : From an alarm occurrence, see if there are similar alarm occurrence in the  next 10 minutes. If occurrence is > 3, count this as a repeated alarm
            • Due to Oscillating process.
            • Unit: Per Day Per operator
            • Chart Example
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              • % Alarms constitute
          • No of Chattering Alarms
            • Unit : Alarms per day per operator
            • Can be due to Instrumentation Failure, Wiring Loose or Oscillating Process
            • Chart Example
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              • % Alarm constitute
          • No of longstanding alarms
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            • Unit : Alarms per day per operator, standing more than 60 minutes
            • Alarm is recovered when it receive alarm recovery OR mode change to AOF
          • No of neglected alarms
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            • Measure the number of alarms not being acknowledged within 5 minutes after annunciation
            • Unit : Alarms per day per operator
          • Time tags in alarming
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            • Is the percentage of time when tags are in alarm mode / number of tags. It is per TAG, not per Alarm Point (e.g. FIC101, not FIC101.LL, not FIC101.LO
          • Alarm Priority
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            • EEMUA recommendation : 80,15,5, Critical < 20
        • MOC Effectiveness
          • Summary
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          • Change Item Distribution
            • Show what type of values were commonly changed
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          • No of PH/PL changes
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            • Takes average over period
          • No of HH/LL changes
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          • No of AON/AOF Changes
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          • No of PID changes
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        • HMI Effectiveness
          • Summary
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          • No of Panels Called up (Per day per Operator)
            • Is a total of Graphic Panels + Trend panels + Control Group Panels + Overview Panels
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            •  image
          • No of panels called up shift trend
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          • No of graphic panels called up
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          • No of trend panels called up
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          • No of Control group panels called up
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              • Control Group is a combined face plate page
          • No of overview panels called up
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            • Special Panel only available in CS3000
        • Automatic Control Effectiveness
          • Summary
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          • Time loop in Control
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          • Time loop in compliance
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            • Is the measure of the percentage of time the PID controller is not deviating from its set point.
            • The controller does not hit the Deviation limit (DV+, DV-) alarms. By default PID block put in a default.
          • Time loop output at limit
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        • Manual Intervention Effectiveness
          • Summary
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          • No of manual interventions
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          • No of SV changes
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          • No of MV Changes
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          • No of Mode Changes
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            • For controller, should mimic the Time loop in Control KPI
          • Repeated Works
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            • % of PID and MLD tags manually intervened more than twice a day.
          • Loop Number per Operator
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            • Shows Productivity of the operator
            • The higher the loop number, the more productive the operator
        • RASIS
          • Reliability
            • Common definition: MTBF
            • Number of System Alarms Per month/ Only specific system alarms which relate to reliability is selected.
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          • Availability
            • Common Definition : Total time equipment is useable.
            • CEA calculates the % time the equipment run without critical (faulty) alarms.
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          • Serviceability
            • Common Definition : MTTR
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            • The average time a system is in some failed state by measuring critical alarms
          • Integrity
            • generally > 60% VNet Load deserves attention
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          • Security
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