Mobile Equipment Monitoring

Mobile Equipment Monitoring

Getting communication data

The OBD2 Protocol


Caterpillar Equipment



- OPC UA Local Discovery is a service provided by OPC Foundation which lists all the OPC UA's on a Machine. It listen to Port 4840
- OPC UA Security has several message security modes:
     - 1: No Security. The messages are neighther signed or encrypted
     - 2: With Security. The messages are signed or but not encrypted
     - 3: With Security. The messages are signed and encrypted
     So what does this mean?
     - The OPC UA specification allows all these type of communication. Yes, including 'no security'!
     - However, an OPC UA Server will  determine which one is allowed.
     - When a client is connecting to an OPC Server, he has the option to request what level of security he wants to connect to.
     - If 'No security' is used, this means:
         - There is no encryiption
         - NO SSL CERTIFICATE IS NEEDED. The client does not need to show a cert
         - The Server will accept all clients (Will not verify the SSL Cert)
- When an SSL Cert is required, OPC UA requres that such a cert is validated.
     - A Thumbprint is a unique id that is calculated by hashing via SHA-1 the contents of the cert. It has 40 characters
     - Validation is based on Subject Name which should be in the form of 'DC=ComputerName,CN=ProgramName". DC is distinguished name, CN is Common Name
- A client will need to scan the OPC UA Server and determin which security policy it implements. OPC UA Security Policies (Obsolete) (Obsolete) [B] [A]
- OPC UA Also allows authentication, typically authenticated againt windows username and password.
- In OPCUA Tree, each item is called a NODE. A Node can be of the following types; these are NODE TYPES (OR Sometimes refer to as Node CLASS)
     - Object = 1,
     - Variable = 2,
     - Method = 4,
     - ObjectType = 8,
     - VariableType = 16,
     - ReferenceType = 32,
     - DataType = 64,
     - View = 128,
- Each Node regardless of whatever types, will have attributes. The following attributes must exist in all node types:
     - NodeId - Uniquely identifies a Node in an OPC UA server and is used to address the Node in the OPC UA Services
         - in OPCUA the NodeId, is rather confusing, like OPC Classic, the NodeId is a string, However, in OPC UA, it first
         - Starts with a NameSpace Index
             - A value between 0-65535 (Ushort)
             - Normally Namespace is zero (meaning no namespace)
         - The actual ID, which can be of 4 types:
             - Numeric = 0 (Unsigned Integer UINT, ranging from 0 to 4Billion)
             - String = 1
             - Guid = 2 (A specific guid)
             - Opaque = 3 (An Array of bytes)
         - Fully Qualified Name
             - Since this naming can be complicated, it is common to use a combined name which will look like the following:
                 - ns=<namespaceIndex>;<identifiertype>=<identifier>
                 - Identifier type can be:
                     - i    NUMERIC (UInteger)
                     - s    STRING (String)
                     - g    GUID (Guid)
                     - b    OPAQUE (ByteString)
             - Specfying the Fully Qualified Name seems to be the common practice for OPCUA Connectivity
     - NodeClass    - An enumeration identifying the NodeClass of a Node such as Object, Variable or Method
     - BrowseName - Identifies the Node when browsing the OPC UA server. It is not localized
     - DisplayName -    ontains the Name of the Node that should be used to display the name in a user interface.
- Nodes may have some additional attributes
     - The Variable Node Type must have in addition the the values
         - Value    - The actual value of the Variable. The data type of the value is specified by the DataType, ValueRank, and ArrayDimensions Attributes
         - DataType - DataTypes are represented as Nodes in the Address Space. This Attribute contains a NodeId of such a Node and thus defines the DataType of the Value Attribute
         - ValueRank    - Identifies if the value is an array and when it is an array it allows specifying the dimensions of the array
         - AccessLevel
             - A bit mask indicating whether the current value of the Value Attribute is readable and writable as well as whether the history of the value is readable and changeable
             - Readable = 1,
             - Readable | Writable = 3
         - UserAccessLevel - Contains the same information as the AccessLevel but takes user access rights into account       
     - The Attributes have attribute IDs
         - 1 = NodeId
         - 2 = NodeClass
         - 3 = BrowseName (A non-localized, human readable name for the node)
         - 4 = DisplayName (A localized, human readable name for the node)
         - 5 = Description (A localized description for the node)
         - 6 = WriteMask (Indicates which attributes are writeable)
         - 7 = UserWriteMask (Indicates which attributes are writeable by the current user)
         - 8 = IsAbstact (Indicates that a type node may not be instantiated)
         - 9 = Symmetric (Indicates that forward and inverse references have the same meaning)
         - 10= InverseName (The browse name for an inverse reference)
         - 11= ContainsNoLoops (Indicates that following forward references within a view will not cause a loop)
         - 12= EventNotifier (Indicates that the node can be used to subscribe to events)
         - 13= Value (The value of a variable) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- MOST IMPORTANT!!!!!!
         - 14= DataType (The node id of the data type for the variable value)
         - 15= ValueRank (The number of dimensions in the value)
         - 16= ArrayDimensions (The length for each dimension of an array value)
         - 17= AccessLevel (How a variable may be accessed)
         - 18= UserAccessLevel (How a variable may be accessed after taking the user's access rights into account)
         - 19= MinimumSamplingInterval (Specifies (in milliseconds) how fast the server can reasonably sample the value for changes)
         - 20= Historizing (Specifies whether the server is actively collecting historical data for the variable)
         - 21= Executable (Whether the method can be called)
         - 22= UserExecutable
         - 23= DataTypeDefinition (Provides the metadata and encoding information for custom DataTypes)
         - 24= Permissions (The permissions available for the node)
         - 25= UserPermissions (The subset of permissions available for the current user)
         - 26= RolePermissions (The permissions granted to roles)

Instrumented Protection Functions

IPF Study

· One or more initiators

· A logic solver or an Instrumented Protection System. Some refer it to as PLC

· One or more final elements

With the purpose to prevent and mitigate hazardous situations

1. SIL Classification (Proceed with all)

2. IPF Verification

3. IPF Implementation

4. IPF Review – Every 5 years

· Most time consuming

· Classifying consequence of IPF failure upon demand (Dangerous Failure)

· Classifying consequence of IPF initiated without demand (Safe Failure/ Spurious Trip/ Nuisance Trip)

· Classifying demand rate. Demand rate is a scenario that causes demand for an IPF

· To assign SIL

· No calculation – just assign SIL. In verification will only be calculation


· SIL Requirements

o 0 no IPF required – In PPTSB 90% was SIL 0

o a1 – Pre-alarm is adequate

o a2 – Triggers a switch action (interlock from DCS) + pre-alarm. Can integrate with control function

o 1 – Triggers switch action + pre-alarm.

§ Final Element can be control valve if fail safe

o 2 – Trigger switch action + pre alarm

§ Final element can be control valve in 1oo2

§ Share initiator with control transmitter in 1oo2

o 3 – Trigger switch action + pre-alarm

§ Share initiator with control transmitter in 2oo3

o 4 – Shall be avoided, very low PFD, more economical to redesign


o Sil 1 : 1/10

o Sil 2 : 1/100

o Sil 3: 1/1000

o Sil 4 : 1/10000

· To verify the installation at site. Look for common installations. Audit like

· Calculate the PFD (Probability of Failure Upon Demand)

· To obtain as low as SIL requirement

· Is calculated by obtaining

· HWFT (Hardware fault tolerance)

· DCF(Diagnostic Coverage Factor)

· Safe Failure Fraction (SFF)

· Number of safe failures vs number of total failures

· Proof Test Coverage Factor

· How much unsafe failures one covers during testing

· Test and repair durations

· Mission Time

· The time between test intervals

· Mission – The mission is referred to the mission the IPF is taking during it’s operation

· The smaller the mission time, the lower the PFD



· 2 Layers of verification

· Architectural Constraint. Consists of the following :-

· Hardware Fault Tolerance (HWFT)

· Is the tolerable number of dangerous failures in the IPF

· For 2oo3, HWFT = 3-2 = 1.

· For 1oo3, HWFT = 3-1 = 2

· For 2oo2, HWFT = 2-2 = 0

· Safe Failure Fraction (SFF)

· Any hardware can be

· Working Normally

· Safe Failure

· Dangerous Failure (Already failed but not known)

· SFF is the ratio of safe failures to the total number of possible failures (Safe + Dangerous)

· Provided by manufacturer

· Type of Instruments

· Type A – All failure modes and effect known. Well documented.

· Type B – Complicated Instruments






< 60%




60% - 90%




90% - 99%




> 99%




Type A Instrument Used






< 60%




60% - 90%




90% - 99%




> 99%




Type B Instrument Used

Safety Integrity Levels (SIL)

· Safety Integrity Levels (SILs) are a safety-measurement standard defined by IEC in IEC61508 to quantify the chance of dangerous failures in electrical or electronic safety devices, that is, the probability of the device to fail in performing its Safety function.

· Four SIL levels are possible, with SIL4 being the most dependable and SIL1 being the least. Each are based on it’s corresponding PFD (Probability of Failure Upon Demand) – Which is the probability that an instrument will not respond to a demand. It usually works on frequency of demand



· 4

· 10-5 to 10-4

· 3

· 10-4 to 10-3

· 2

· 10-3 to 10-2

· 1

· 10-2 to 10-1

· TÜVs (Technischer Überwachungsverein) are German organizations that aim to protect humans and the environment against hazards coming from factories and mechanisms of all kinds. As an independent consultant, it examines monitoring-needy plants, motor vehicles, energy installations and devices. The many subsidiaries of the TÜVs can also appear as project developers for energy and traffic concepts, problem solutions in the area of environmental protection and certification bodies

Lightning and grounding


· Surface of earth, 50% of all lightning are cloud to surface

· Another cloud

· Air


· Direct lightning strike

· Carried lightning strike -lightning is carried by cable to an equipment

· Induced lightning strike – lightning induces electromagnetic field which creates surge currents. Magnetic fields can also induce

· 99 % of strikes are of intensity exceeding 3000A, 50 % of strikes exceed intensity of 28000A and 1% of strikes exceed around 200,000A

· The duration of stroke are typically 100 microseconds while in exceptional cases it may exceed 1 second. The voltage present on a charged cell will be in the magnitude of 100MV

· The high current flashes start first from tall structures.

· For human , massive current flow causes disturbances in the human electrochemical system, nerve damage. The heat generated from lightning burning can turn sweat instantaneously to steam. These steam is known to blow of people’s boots, shoes and clothing.

· For Electronics, it can cause vaporization of PCBs, transistors and fuses due to the heat it generates when arcing through high resistance insulation.

· For other equipments, it can create sparks and if there is combustible gasses nearby, it will cause fire

Lightning Protection System

SPD Type




Can be used for AC


Provides hardest clamping

Cannot be used for AC


Can be Used for AC

Grounding / Earthing

Electro Magnetic Interference

Wiring and Cabling

Wirings / Cables

· Cable will be terminated by a cable gland before going into a junction box/equipment. The purpose of the cable gland is

· to grip the cable so that it hangs on to the equipment

· to void water ingress into the junction box

· To ensure hazardous are protection

The usual cable entry used is M20 type. The M’s range from M16 to M175 (smaller to larger cables). The complete M20 annotation is usually described as ‘M20x15’. 15 here means 15 mm length of the thread. M20 usually has a hexagon ring to ensure better gripping

· Cable thickness

· Cable thickness will determine the maximum cable carrying capacity.

· When one says cable thickness, it means the inner core NOT including the insulation.

· Cable thickness is usually measured in mm2 and will range between 0.005 to 100 mm2

· Sometimes cable thickness is measured in mm and this will range between 0.08 to 11 mm (you can calculate the area by using [PI*(D/2)^2]

· Field Instrument Signal wires

· use copper type wires which are usually around 1.13 mm

· The minimum cable diameter should be 1.13mm for single pair wires and 0.8mm for multicore wires (PTS)

· When specifying cable thickness, one will use standard. The most common standards used are

· American Wire Gauge (AWG)

· Standard Wire Gauge (SWG)

· Cable Capacitance


· Cable Insulation

· Cable insulation will determine the maximum voltage carrying capacity

· Screened or Unscreened

· Also called metal sheet. This is to remove noise and is made up of aluminum

· Metal sheet layer must be provided for small voltage signals to remove noise (Note that this wire must be grounded to instrument earth at the MDF). It is usually made of aluminum. TSometimes the metal screen will be also traced by a thin copper wire. This is to ensure continuity of the metal screen since usually, when the wires are bent, the aluminum sheath may tear apart. This wire is also called a drain wire

· Individual or overall screen

· Signal cables require screen while power cables do not

· The metal screen maybe available on every pair of cables. Even in a 10P-multicore cable, each pair will have a metal screen.

· Some multicore cable provide an single overall screen wire and do not have single wires on each pair

· Paired or Unpaired

· Some cables are paired while some aren’t.

· When they are paired, it is common to have individual screen for each pairs

· Inner layer insulating Material

· Typically polyethylene is used

· Outer layer insulating material

· Typically PVC is used because it is fire proof

· Underground Cable Protection

· Underground cabling must be provided with a special layer called AL/HDPE/PA (aluminium with high density polyethylene with polyamide (nylon) layer) to prevent moisture, chemical fumes or termite attacks. The AL (aluminum) layer also acts as a metal screen, hence no MS is required when AL/HDPE/PA is used

· Mechanical Protection

· Some cables will have an armour Layer

· It can either be steel wired armour or steel wire braiding

· To prevent mechanical forces, the use of steel wire armored or steel wire braiding is required (Note that this wire must be grounded to safety earth and the JB). Steel wire braiding is like a net style interface. This wire can also act as a metal screen. In this case the wire is grounded to the clean earth at the MDF. However some protective is installed at the cable gland of the JB so that the braided steels do not touch the gland since this gland is grounded to safety earth

· Fire Protection

· Fire resistant cables have a special layer before the SWA called ‘MICA’ a silica based material having high fire resistance.

· Fire retardant cables will have a high oxygen index. Oxygen index refers to how much oxygen is required to burn the cables. Normal cables will have oxygen index of 23% while fire retardant cables will have o2 index of 30%

· Thermocouple Cables

· If for thermocouple we require type K (Chromel Alumel) connections, which are red(+ve) and yellow(-ve) of color

· As a general guideline, instrument cables must have the following construction:-

· The conductor (Usually Copper Type)

· Insulator for conductor (Usually Poly Ethlyene)

· A Bedding Layer (To avoid direct contact of armour layer on screen) This layer provides insulation on the effect circulating ground currents (Since electrical earth is grounded in many places, current will flow in the ground wire due to ground potential difference)

· Cables shall be specified with low smoke and zero halogen. Halogen is very toxic to the body

· 1Pair/2P/3P/1Triad/2T/3T - 1.13mm PEI-MS -SWA-PVCS

· 1Pair/2P/1T/2T/3T – 1.13mm PEI-MS-AL/HDPE-SWA-HDPE/NC (for underground)

· 5P/10P/20P/10T/15T – 0.8mm PEI-MS-AL/HDPE-SWA-HDPE/NC (for underground)

· 1P/2P – 4.0mm2 PEI-MS-AL/HDPE-SWA-PVCS (for instrument power cables)

· 1P/5P/10P – 4.0mm2 PEI-MS-AL/HDPE-SWA-HDPE/NC (for instrument power cables)

· 1P/2P – 1.13mm PEI-MS-PVCS (internal cabinet wiring or installations with conduit)

· 10P/20P – 0.8mm PEI-MS-PVCS (internal cabinet wiring or installations with conduit)

· Fibre Optic Cables – FO-AL/HDPE-SWA-PVCS/NC (for underground)

· Cable Costs bought from vendor (who already marked up the price) in general are more or less the following

· 1P – RM40/m

· 10P – RM120/m

· Fibre Optics

· Cheaper, more commonly used

· Has a larger diameter core

· 100 MBit/s for 2KM, 1000 MBit/s for 500m, 10GBit/s for 300m

· Multiple Data, Have 2 different wavelengths

· Cat 5 Cables

· Color Coding


Junction Box

· Cable entries shall be from the bottom. This is to prevent water ingress. If there is not enough space at the bottom, installation can be from the side. The cables however ned to be slanted to the bottom to allow water to flow downwards

· Ex junction boxes have a groove to allow heat to dissipate through. This will allow heat to go out of the junction box. CAUTION, it is wrong to tape the junction box as it will seal this groove. Experience has shown that when this groove is sealed, we may get melted termination blocks


Wired Signal transmission

· Magnetically induced noise.

· This is caused due to flux produced at the flowing current. When another wire is nearby, it will cause a flux cutting and induce voltage.

· Using a twisted pair wire will cancel out this induction

· Static noise.

· This is caused since two wires are close by, the wires create and imaginary capacitance between. The capacitance causes a build up of charge.

· By having a metal screen wire, this charge can be dissipated to clean earth (instrument earth)

· Common mode noise.

· This is the noise caused from the current created by different electrical grounding points


Wireless Transmission

· 1 to 30 to 300Hz

· Extremely Low Radio Frequency (ELF) and Super low frequency (SLF)

· Used for Communication with submarines – This is a one way communication

· Waves are produces by mounting 2 large antennas apart

· Extremely slow communication, Few characters per minutes

· 300-3KHz – Ultra Low Radio Frequency (ULF) – Used for communication in mines

· 3 - 30KHz

· Very Low Radio Frequency (VLF)

· Can penetrate up to 40m deep under water

· Used for communication with satellites on the surface

· Used in electromagnetic geophysical surveys (detecting gold, minerals)

· 30 – 300KHz

· Low Radio frequency (LF)

· Used for navigation, radio clocks

· In some countries used for AM modulation

· 300 – 3000KHz

· Medium Radio Frequency (MF)

· Used for AM Broadcasting

· 3 - 30MHz

· High Radio Frequency (HF)

· Ionosphere can reflect these frequencies – Due to this HF has a very long distance. This phenomena is called skywave. Skywave is however effected by a lot of whether factors

· Used by amateur radios (private radios) since they would enjoy the long transmission

· 30 – 300MHz

· Very High Frequency (VHF)

· FM Radio transmission

· Previously used for black and white Television Broadcast. Could not be used for colour TV due to limited bandwidth

· 300MHz – 3GHz

· Ultra High Frequency (UHF)

· 450MHz is used for ATUR communication

· 900 – 1800MHz is used for Cellular Communication

· 900 Mhz band is used for Celcom and Maxis communication

· 1800 Mhz is used for adam.timecel and digi

· Wireless transmitters use 902 – 928 MHz Signal

· 470 – 800 MHz is used for color TV channels

· 2.4GHz Wifi Communication

· 2.45 GHz is used for microwave oven and blue tooth

· 3 – 30GHz

· Super High Frequency (SHF), popularly called the Microwave

· Used for WiMax

· Used for radar, as most objects reflect microwave signals

· Blue tooth use

· 6765-6795 kHz (centre frequency 6780 kHz)

· 13553-13567 kHz (centre frequency 13560 kHz)

· 26957-27283 kHz (centre frequency 27120 kHz)

· 40.66-40.70 MHz (centre frequency 40.68 MHz)

· 433.05-434.79 MHz (centre frequency 433.92 MHz) in Region 1

· Walkie Talkie

· 902-928 MHz (centre frequency 915 MHz) in Region 2

· Wireless Transmitters

· Cordless Phones

· 2400-2500 MHz (centre frequency 2450 MHz)

· 5725-5875 MHz (centre frequency 5800 MHz)

· 24-24.25 GHz (centre frequency 24.125 GHz)

· 61-61.5 GHz (centre frequency 61.25 GHz)

· 122-123 GHz (centre frequency 122.5 GHz)

· 244-246 GHz (centre frequency 245 GHz)

· HP use a network called the cellular network. The cellular network is made out of cellular towers, normally known as cell sites. The most popular cellular network standard use is GSM(Global System for Mobile Communication)

· GSM operates in 2 frequency bands 900Mhz and 1800Mhz

· The first generation of HP, called 1G, uses analogues signals for communication.

· The second generation 2G, uses digital signals for communication. Voice signal is sent in a digital signal of around 10Kbits/s

· The third generation of mobile phones is 3G. This was enabled by packet switching technology which provides a higher bandwidth. Can go upto 1MBit/S

· The fourth generation of mobile phones is 4G. 4G is still conceptual, but the enabling technology would be the removal of all circuit switch communication into a fully IP based packet switched integrated system. It will also combine with Wifi and Wimax infrastructure. Can go up to 100Mbit/S

· Size :- Obstruction which effects the signal must e larger than then the wave length

· Material :- If an obstruction is a good conductor, it will reflect the signal which is not good. However if the obstruction is a good insulator, the signal will pass thorugh. The degree to which a material is a good conductor or insulator also depends on the wavelength. The higher the wave length, the better the signal may pass through the object

· 0 – 4KHz : Telephone audio inside cables

· 25KHz – 1MHz : Broadband Internet

· 900Mhz more range

· 900 Mhz has more interference from pager and mobile communication

· 900 Mhz can reach without LOS

· 900 Mhz has lower power consumption

· The type of signal in use (i.e. the underlying technology), similarly to the fact that AM radio waves reach further than FM radio waves

· The transmitter's rated power

Wireless Transmitters

Fire and Gas Detector

Fire and Gas (F&G) System

· Manual fire call points

· Fire detectors

· Flammable gas detectors

· Toxic gas detectors

· Local Fire alarm panels


· Alarms

· Loud speaker – For unit

· Optical Beacon

· Motor siren

· Strong sound

· For fire only

· Local Bell – Use in building

· Has a mimic panel to know where the fire originated

· Only for buildings, for plants, we rely on DCS.

· Purpose

· For fire brigade

· Because buildings are common alarm we need to know where fire is

· Types

· Addressable

· More diagnostics

· Chain loop topology. If 1 detector fails, the other detectors can till work

· Conventional

· One loop per room

· If 1 detector fails, all other detectors won’t work

· A method to ensure robustness against failure

· Do IPF study for fire and gas – to be implemented

· Normally use 1oo2D

· Originally 1oo2, If 1 fault become 1oo1. Unlike safeguarding if 1 fault, fail safe

· For automatic, 2oo2

Fire Detection System

· Flaming – From hydrocarbons

· Smoldering – Fire burning without flame

· Flash

· Smoke first

· Flame Second

· Heat last

· Flame

· Smoke

· Heat

· Human visual




When to use


Fast detection


Early warning

Closed areas, for early warning


Hazard specific, less nuisance alarms, reliable

Cannot function test, damage replace, Slow response

When rapid fire spread is unlikely,


· Manual Call Points

· In process area Installed at side of roads every 100 meters

· In offsite area installed at side of roads every 200 meters





When to use


Detect IR from flame flickering

Open fires

Cannot detect smouldering fires, Cannot detect H2 based fire,

Solar radiation interference

Preferred technology for hydrocarbon


Extremely Fast detection, open fires

Heavy smoke will foul the lens.

Welding, flare, black body interference.



The best

IR multiple Freq

Visual CCTV


· Smoke detectors provide the earliest warning for fires.

· From critical buildings, a concept called VESDA(Very early smoke detection apparatus) is utilized. In our plant, the system is called USSD (Ultra sensitive smoke detection). The concepts of USSD is

· Aspiration units are installed throughout the building. Installed normally on ceilings

· The smokes are sucked and brought to a central unit

· The central unit hosts an optical type smoke detector





When to Use

Optical / Scattered light type

Smoke deflects beam of light

Good for smouldering fires,

Preferred choice, most common


Smoke particles reduce current created from ion flow of radioactive materials

Sensitive to small smoke particles

Must be applied together with heat detectors

Only when ionization type cannot be used. Use in printing workshops, highly flammable places

· Most commonly used inside plants since it’s hazard specific





When to use


Heat will melt a tube containing pressure


False alarms, easily


Heat will cause insulators to melt and 2 conductors come in contact


Heat causes metal to bend

· Best is use of F&G mapping software

· No standards, just based on principle (owner) study


· Installed at most likely place for leaks

· Mechanical seals

· High pressure Flanges

· If gas tend to go up, the detector should be place on top and vice versa

Gas Detection System

· Analyzer house

· Pit

· HVAC air intake for buildings in plant





When to use

Electro Catalytic

Combustible gas oxidizes and produces heat

Robust, detects any combustible gasses, Cheaper

Catalyst can be poisoned,

Single point detection, fail-dangerous

Use when hydrogen detection is needed

Electro Chemical

Electrolysis of gas creates voltage

PPM Level, Good repeatability,

Cannot be used at high temperature and low humidity,

Must change electrolytes, Not fail safe, Gas specific (H2S, SO2,CO2,NO2, CL2)

Old technology, typically avoided, used mainly for toxic gas (see below)

Point type Infrared Gas Detector

Long service life, background gas does not effect service life, has diagnostic, fail safe

Cannot detect hydrogen

Preferred choice for HC plants.

LOS Infrared Gas detectors

Larger coverage

Expensive, high prone to nuisance alarms

Unit of measure is PPM Meter

· 2 categories

· Category 1 – Immediate health effect gasses (H2S, CO, HCL)

· H2S < 10 PPM, more than that is dangerous. 1000 PPM = dead

· HCL < 5 PPM

· Category 2 – Long Term (Vinyl Chloride, benzene, toluene)






When to use

Electro Catalytic H2S gas detector

Combustible gas oxidizes and produces heat


For H2S detection

Electro Chemical

Electrolysis of gas creates voltage

PPM Level, stability, immune to environment change

Must change electrolytes, Not fail safe, Gas specific (H2S, SO2,CO2,NO2, CL2)

Preferred choice


Instrument Intrinsic Safety

Instrument Safety

IP First number - Protection against solid objects

0 No protection.
1 Protected against solid objects up to 50mm, e.g. accidental touch by hands.
2 Protected against solid objects up to 12mm, e.g. fingers.
3 Protected against solid objects over 2.5mm (tools and wires).
4 Protected against solid objects over 1mm (tools, wire, and small wires).
5 Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit).
6 Totally protected against dust.

IP Second number - Protection against liquids

0 No protection.
1 Protection against vertically falling drops of water e.g. condensation.
2 Protection against direct sprays of water up to 15o from the vertical.
3 Protected against direct sprays of water up to 60o from the vertical.
4 Protection against water sprayed from all directions o limited ingress permitted.
5 Protected against low pressure jets of water from all directions o limited ingress.
6 Protected against low pressure jets of water, e.g. for use on ship decks - limited ingress permitted.
7 Protected against the effect of immersion

IP Third number - Protection against mechanical impacts (commonly omitted)

0 No protection.
1 Protects against impact of 0.225 joule (e.g. 150g weight falling from 15cm height).
2 Protected against impact of 0.375 joule (e.g. 250g weight falling from 15cm height).
3 Protected against impact of 0.5 joule (e.g. 250g weight falling from 20cm height).
4 Protected against impact of 2.0 joule (e.g. 500g weight falling from 40cm height).
5 Protected
Substance LEL UEL
Acetone 3% 13%
Acetylene 2.5% 82%
Benzene 1.2% 7.8%
Butane 1.8% 8.4%
Ethanol 3% 19%
Ethylbenzene 1.0% 7.1%
Ethylene 2.7% 36%
Diethyl ether 1.9% 36%
Diesel fuel 0.6% 7.5%
Gasoline 1.4% 7.6%
Hexane 1.1% 7.5%
Heptane 1.05% 6.7%
Hydrogen 4% 75%
Hydrogen sulfide 4.3% 46%
Kerosene 0.6% 4.9%
Methane 4.4% 17%
Octane 1% 7%
Pentane 1.5% 7.8%
Propane 2.1% 9.5%
Propylene 2.0% 11.1%
Styrene 1.1% 6.1%
Toluene 1.2% 7.1%
Xylene 1.0% 7.0%



Equipment Protection

· Classes or Zone

· Zone is used for Europe

· Zone 0 = Flammable material always present

· Zone 1 = Intermittent available and for long hours (>10 hours)

· Zone 2 = Not always available and for short durations only (<10 hours)

· Class is used in US

· Rosemount transmitters use

· Gas group

· Refers to a group of gas which has similar propertie as the group gas. The main property is the ignition energy

· Group I = Methane

· Group IIA = Propane

· Group IIB = Ethylene

· Group IIC = Hydrogen

· Temperature Classes

· Each gas has an auto ignition temperature

· An area can be classified from T1 and T6. T1 has the highest auto ignition temperature hence it is safest.

· An equipment can be certified as T1 to T6. This is the worst case temperature the equipment can get hot

· Ex ‘d’ = Flame proof – Not designed to be gas tight, energy is released through flame path, Large design to prevent explosion.

· Ex ‘o’ = oil immersion – used for transformers, Zone 1 and 2

· Ex ‘p’ = Pressurized – used for analyzers, Zone 1 and 2 – Equipment needs to be powered off if the enclosure is opened. This is why purging is ‘’not usually recommended

· Ex ‘q’ = Powder field – weighing machines, Zone 1 and 2

· Ex ‘ma’ = encapsulation – Zone 1 and 2

· Ex ‘d’ = Flame proof , explosion is confined within box– DC motors, Zone 1 and 2

· Ex ‘e’ = Increased safety, it is not possible for explosion to happen. The box is designed in such a way to prevent

· Connections oversized

· Terminations more robust

– Induction motors, instrument JB, Zone 1 and 2

· Ex ‘ia’ = instrinsic safety – if 1 component fails, IS can still retain - Zone 0,1,2

· Ex ‘ib’ = intrinsically safe, Zone 1 and 2 only


Matrikon Alarm MOC

Matrikon Alarm MOC / MOCCA / AMMOC

  • MOCCA stands for “Management of Change and Configuration Assistant”
  • Matrikon Alarm MOC has 3 different users
·        Operator (User)
·        A regular user
·        Enforcer (Engineer)
·        A super user, Can do what operator does
·        Can enforce tag
·        Can edit tag values
·        Synonymous to a Process Safety Engineer
·        Approver (Administrator)
·        Can do what enforcer does
·        Can start and stop channels
·        Can Create and Edit Alarm Philosophy Matric
·        Synonymous to System Administrator
  • The DCS Map File
·        The purpose of the DCS Map file is to tell MOCCA how a DCS tag structure looks like and contains. It also determines which items come out in the TagBrowser Report
·        It is an XML based and starts with
·        <DCSMAP>
·        <TAGTYPE Name=”AIC101” Classification=”Analog Input”>
·        <PARAMETER Name=”PVHH_LIM” FieldType = “TripPoint” EngType=”Value” />
·        <PARAMETER Name=”PVLL_LIM” FieldType = “TripPoint” EngType=”Value” />
·        <PARAMETER Name=”PVHH_SER” FieldType = “TripPoint” EngType=”Value” />
·        <PARAMETER Name=”PVLL_SER” FieldType = “TripPoint” EngType=”Value” />
·        <PARAMETER Name=”ALM_ENAB” FieldType=”TagLevelAlarmStatus” TagLevelAlarmEnableText=”1” Enforce=”True” />
·        <ALARM Name= ‘””>
·        <ParamRef Parameter=”PVHH_LIM” />
·        <ParamRef Parameter=”PVHH_SER” />
·        </ALARM>
·        <ALARM Name= ‘””>
·        <ParamRef Parameter=”PVLL_LIM” />
·        <ParamRef Parameter=”PVLL_SER” />
·        </ALARM>
·        <Group Name=””>
·        <ParamRef Parameter=”P” />
·        <ParamRef Parameter=”I” />
·        <ParamRef Parameter=”D” />
·        </Group>
·        </TAGTYPE>
·        <PriorityMap>
·        <Low Value=”1”>
·        <Medium Value=”2”>
·        <High Value=”3”>
·        <EmergencyValue=”4”>
·        </PriorityMap>
·        </DCSMAP>
·        The Sergregation between ALARM and GROUP is important to:-
·        To know which is an Alarm and which is a Group from the Alarm Report
·        An Incorrect DCS MAP File will cause the Channel Fail to start. It is therefore important to ensure the XML code is correct. E.g:-
·        Comments must start with “<!--“ Comments and ends with “-->”
·        Valid Values for TYPE
·        String
·        Real
·        Integer
·        Valid Values for EngType
·        Ignore
·        Value
·        Range
·        Valid values for Field Type
·        None
·        Priority
·        TripPoint
·        Unit
·        Desc
·        TagLevelAlarmStatus
·        Priority Map Node Names Must be
·        Low
·        Medium
·        High
·        Emergency
·        Other
·        Discovered on 16/8/2011, not all cases where channel failed to start is due to DCS MAP FILE Failure… sometimes the sync service just becomes out dated. Resaving the settings in the ‘Manage Channels’ page would solve this. Discovered on 12/10/2011, resaving the DCS MAP file solved the problem
·        For <TAGTYPE>,
·        The Name attribute
·        Indicates the type of tag
·        Must match up with the Rules File (.rbf) TagType in the MOC rules builder
·        Will be displayed in the AM MOC Tag type
·        The Classification attribute
·        Is used for the Alarm Point Type Distribution By Area
·        This report answers the question of how many alarms are configured per tag (alarm/tag); which is then segregated by tag type
·        The Value would normally be
·        Analogue Input
·        Analog Output
·        Controller
·        Other
·        The <PARAMETER> child node
·        lists down all the parameter to be scynchronized.
·        If synchronizing from OPC, the Name attribute it must match the OPC Parameter Name (Such as PV,OP,PVHHLIM and etc) (Not the name in the rules builder). The parameter should be browsable from the Rules Builder
·        The FieldType attribute determines the type of parameter. It must be either:-
·        No Values (Default)
·        Priority ç Alarm Priority, needs to synchronize
·        TripPoint ç Alarm Set Point, needs to synchronize
·        Unit ç Name of Unit
·        Desc ç Appears in the Description Field
·        [CHECKED ON 13/10/2011] The ‘DESC’ value is put in to Tell MOC that this is what needs to appear in the Desciption field in the web report. If there are more than 1 field having the ‘DESC’ value, the LAST ‘DESC’ field will be used in the the Description web reportclip_image006
·        TagLevelAlarmStatusç Enabled State of Alarms
·        E.g. if <Parameter Name=”AlmEnable” FieldType=”TagLevelAlarmStatus” TagLevelAlarmStatus = “1” />, this means that whenever The AlamEnable parameter is read as 1, it means this alarm is enables
·        This is important for the disabled alarm report
·        Note that this is for the TAG LEVEL. Meaning that if this parameter matches 1, the whole tag is considered inhibited (All Alarms Disabled in the tag). It is not for individual parameters within the tag being disabled
·        I did an experiment where I had several parameters with TagLevelAlarmStatus. Only when all of them does not match the TagLevelAlarm Status (i.e. = 0 in this example), will the tag be registered as disabled or inhibited in the report. However, for the Tag to be enabled back (cleared from the disabled report), only > half the number of the alarmtaglevelstatus need to be activated.
·        The EngType Field is a parameter setting to be used in the TagBrowser. It also effects the discrepancy report.
·        Ignore – This is by Default (if nothing is specified). For this, the parameter is excluded from the discrepancy report
·        Value – If this is specified, then the user can enter only a single value (in the Min field). If the value does not equal this value then it is considered a discrepancy
·        Range – If this is specified, then the user can enter the Min and Max Eng value, as long as the actual value is between this, it is not considered a discrepancy
·        Issus on Disabled Alarm
·        Now what if an Alarm is disabled? By right it should not be shown as a discrepance if it is disabled. MOCCA takes this into account.
·        By default MOCCA, assumes all alarms that has Severity value not in the priority map as disabled.
·        As shown in the sample DCS map above, all alarms will be under an <Alarm> node and this node contains the severity.
·        <ALARM Name= “PVHH>
·        <ParamRef Parameter=”PVHH_LIM” />
·        <ParamRef Parameter=”PVHH_SER” />
·        </ALARM>
·        By Default, If the priority value = ‘0’ then the alarm will be disabled.
·        Additional disabling can be added by adding configured expressions e.g. Note that PVHHALMEN does not need to be configured in the ParamRef for this to work
·        <ALARM Name= “PVHH” ConfiguredExpression=”PVHHALMEN=’1’”>
·        <ParamRef Parameter=”PVHH_LIM” />
·        <ParamRef Parameter=”PVHH_SER” />
·        <ParamRef Parameter=”PVHHALMEN” /> ç Can be removed and still work
·        </ALARM>
·        In the MOCCA TAG Browser in OI, alarms which are enabled will be bolded
·        The <PRIORITY> Child Node
·        Is used to determine the Alarm Priorities available in the system.
·        MOC has defined by default that alarms should be categorized as
·        Low
·        Medium
·        High
·        Emergency
·        Other
·        Hence, the priority map node must only be restricted to these values. A DCS Map file error will occur if the node values are not within these values
·        This can be changed by (Have not researched this yet)
·        The Value in the DCS map determines which value should map to that priority. This priority mapping value will be applied with parameters with FieldType=Priority
·        IF there are more than 1 value which represents a particular priority. The node can be extended as follows:-
·        <PriorityMap>
·        <Low Value=”1”>
·        <Medium Value=”2”>
·        <Medium Value=”3”>
·        <High Value=”4”>
·        <EmergencyValue=”5”>
·        </PriorityMap>
·        Note that the value cannot be null or it will cause an error
·        The priority map having emergency, high, medium, low is only important for the
·        Priority Distribution By Alarm Condition Report
·        Priority Distribution by Area Report
  • The VB SynchronizationScript
·        After you edit a VB script, one does not need to restart synchronization. Tested on 12/10/2011, even if you edit the script while a MOC browse is occurring, the changes effect immediately
·        The sync script must have the ProcessTag() subroutine and this must be executed
·        In this script, the object Rawtag is exposed. This tag can be modified as follows
·        Rawtag.DCSID – Get
·        Rawtag.Name – Get, Set
·        Rawtag.Qualifier – Get, Set
·        Rawtag.Type – Get, Set
·        Rawtag.Network – Get,Set
·        Rawtag.Area – Get,Set
·        Rawtag.Unit – Get,Set
·        Rawtag.Parameters – Get,Set
·        Rawtag.Parameters.Item(“PVHH_SER”) – Get, Set ç The ParameterName is called here
·        The get items work for items not declared in the DCS Map
·        The get item however does not work if the Parameter is not defined in the parameters section of the rules builder
·        The rawtag Parameters.Item
·        Note that the Sync Script is not persistant. The entire script (Outside and inside the processtag procedure is executed every cycle). Variables are not pass on the next execution. This is unlike AM
  • The VB MOC Structure Script
·        The MOCCA structure script is a VBScript which invokes the procedure ProcessMOCStructure everytime it reaches a branch which satisfies the requirements outlined in both TAGDEFINITION and TAGTYPE (i.e a particular tagtype is identifier). THIS IS IMPORTANT!!!. The MOC Strcuture script is not executed at a branch that does not satisfy a tag definition
·        This script is at every branch or movement of the OPC browsing while the Tag Update Synchronization is done.
·        In this script, the object MOCStructure is exposed. This object holds
·        MOCStructure
·        TagCount ç Number of Tags in the Structure (As long as it fits the tag criteria defined in the Rules RBF file)
·        TagList
·        Item(i)
·        ParameterCount çNumber of Parameters in the Tag
·        TagType ç The type of tag as defined by the Rules (RBF)
·        ParameterList
·        Item(i)
·        Name ç This is the Name of the Parameter, as it appears during MOC Browsing using  MOC Rules Builder. In the Example Below the Item(x).Name (or Parameter Name) is “ALARM”. This NOTE : This Parameter Name is used in the Parameters Identification in the MOC rules builder
·        ItemName ç This is the full OPC Item Path. It is the same path which is declared in the ODH Source Name Column. It can be used in VB scripts to make the OPC Call [TESTED ON 30/8/2011]. This is it’s true location
HarmonyNavigation/RootUnit/U-Batch and Chem Prep Harmony/U-Batch Mill Harmony/U31-Digesters/ILBP2:TYPE
(In this case the Parameter Name is TYPE. The “:” becomes a separater between Path and Item)
(In this case the Parameter Name is PV)
·        Synchronize ç Set ad “true/false”. If false, item is not synchronized
For this reason, one can use a BLANK DCS MAP FILE  and A BLANK MOC SYNCRONIZATION SCRIPT [TESTED ON 30/8/2011]
Blank DCS Map File:-
<?xml version="1.0"?>
Blank Sync Script:-
Private Sub ProcessTag()
End Sub
·        NOTE, THIS WAS TESTED on 15/8/2011
·        The ProcessMOCStructure script AND ALSO THE ProcessTag (Synchronization Script) execution is not persistent. If you declare a global variable (i.e. Dim X) outside the procedure, use it in the ProcessMOCStructure subroutine, it will not maintain the last value of X on the next execution.
·        TESTED ON 12/10/2011 on the MOC Synchronization script: The code executes everything outside the procedure vs before going into the procedure. Therefore the object created need to be destroyed in the Process Tag Function (Set FSO=Nothing).
·        The entire script is executed, on every MOC branch step. The top part, and also the script inside the ProcessMOCStructure. This is unlike AM where only the ProcessMessage() is executed for every step and the TOP part (normally used for object declaration) is executed at the start only once
·        For A GLOBAL Variable, it needs to be declared outside the ProcessMOCStructure. If it is not declared outside, any assignments done to it inside the ProcessMOCStructure will not be passed to other subroutine..
  • Synchronization
·        Regular Update
·        Execute periodically. Executes also every time the service is started
·        SQL server stores, all OPC item names (or paths). Performs the following query on SQL server, to get the item names
      AMTag.Name as TagName,
      AMTag.Type AS TagType,
      AMOPCParameter.ItemName AS ItemID,
      AMOPCParameter.Name AS ParameterName,
AMTag inner join AMOPCParameter on
AMTag.ID =AMOPCParameter.TagID
AMTag.ChannelName = 'IM_Surrogate'
and HMTP = 0
·        Quickly grabs all OPC values from the results of this query
·        Does not browse the OPC tree structure
·        (And therefore) Does not invoke MOC Structure Sctipe (ProcessMOCTag)
·        Below is how the Synchronization Log File works when regular update is done
·        Tag Update
·        Execute Periodically as well
·        Executes also every time the service is started
·        Invokes the tag update synchronization script (Process tag), updates everything
·        Invokes MOC Structure Sctipt
·        Browses the OPC tree structure. This causes it to take longer!
  • Triggering the Synchronization
·        Sometimes when restart service, both tag and regular update is performed if, scheduled start time is less than current time. If this does not work, play around with the manage channels. Change the time start to 1 minute later and saveclip_image016
·        You can turn off the regular update and fast update cycle if you are only interested in the tag list update
·        Regular Update Started
·        Start of Tag list Update
·        Tag List Update Completed
·        Regular Update uses the data obtained from SQL to perform the update. The processing tag is done immediately (Invoking the Process Tag Script)
·        Regular Update Completed
·        Reasons Why Browsing Fails
·        The start path is configured in rules builder (There is a bug here (26/07/2011).Removing in rules builder may fix it
·        The tag definition in OPC item is not configured correctly (TAG DEFINITION IS CASE SENSITIVE!).
·        Sometimes the regular update does not browse the tree. To fix, this you can play around with the options in the MOC Rules builder. There are 3 ticks (8 combinations). Changing this will have immediate effect on the program browsing (witnessed on 22072011)clip_image028
  • Process Tag Synchronization scripts
·        Installed in the process tag
  • Tag Deletion
·        Tag is deleted using the MOCCA Excel Interface. Once a Tag is deleted, it should immediately dissappear from the plant hierarchy (no need to refresh netobjects or whatever)
·        dsd
  • Plant Hierarchy
·        Tag list update will rebuild the tree
·        If a tag is already configured and the area need to change, the tag must be deleted first. Tag is deleted using the MOCCA Excel Interface
·        Once the tag is deleted, when it is re-imported back, the  new object trees will be rebuilt.
·        Note that the Net Object tree does not need to be deleted for this, only the tag
  • The rules builder is used to build an “rbf” file which contains the rules on what items to take and classify when MOCCA parses through an OPC server
·        Note 1 2/2/2011 MOCCA 3.0.4 – The Set Start Path doesn’t’ work don’t bother to use it
·        You can prevent the OPC server to go through an entire branch by right clicking => Exclude Branch
·        You do not need to restart the synchronization service after the rules file has been changed.
  • The rules is structured into 3 parts
·        Tag definition
·        In an OPC structure there are many items (e.g. Alarms, Status, Tags, etc). This definition is used to identify which OPC structure is a tag.
·        Rules can be built to determine a tag based on
·        OPC Items
·        Important! Take note that the OPC Item is not the parameter name or parameter item name, it is a hierarchy name based on the browse where each branch is separated by a ‘\’ . For this it is imperitave to take note that the Operator equals may not work for OPC item. One should use the endswith term instead.IMPORTANTTIP!!: To get a more precise rule. Use set the OPC Item rules as “Ends With \BAL” (For selecting only BAL parameter)
·        The OPC Items need NOT BE DECLARED in the Parameters Tab of the Rules Builder for it to scan an OPC Item [TESTED ON 20/8/2011]
·        OPC Branch
·        OPC Properties
·        Each Rule by default is an “AND” Operator. If one opens the RBF File, under <Tag Ident><Criteria> node, there is a possibility to change this from and “AND” to an “OR”. This change unfortunately does not work (as of 27/7/2011)
·        The Path to Next…
·        Is used to determine where is the tag. Typically it’s “..” means that the tag(name) is a parent to the node
·        The Maintain Tag Types Hyperlink
·        Tag types must be declared here. There are many tag types such as for a yokogawa system there are PVI, PID, PVO and etc.
·        TagType and Parameters Definition
·        The tagtype declares a rule of which of the tags belong to the defined tag type.
·        The rules has lines, each line is and AND operator. If no rules are configured, here (i.e. no parameter or tag lines), no tags will be detected
·        By Default, a tagtype “Default” is already created in a freshly opened rules file. This “Default” tagtype cannot be deleted Using the MOC Rules builder. It can however be deleted by directly deleting the tagtype node in the RBF File.
·        NOTE!!! The “Default” Tag type will captue any tag even though nothing is declared in it’s parameter. By right one should not allow default tags to be synchronized
·        To declare this part one can declare MOC Node Type by Parameter or By Tag
·        By Parameter –
·        If one selects this, one needs to define the parameters first on the parameter tab.
·        IMPORTANT!! VERIFIED 22072011 The Name is actually the Parameter Name, which does NOT include the path.
·        Table above shows the difference between parameter name and parameter item.
·        The parameter tab is used to define the rules for which parameter is selected. Since we have selected the tag in tag definition, in the parameter tab, we need to select which parameters we need. An easy way is to take all parameter and define a very generic rule (such as ends with “”), this will results in the system browsing all tags including the tags we don’t want. (This does not effect the tag browser report as the tag browser report is based on what is configured in the DCS Map file). Picture below shoes this. All Parameters are highlighted green indicating all parameters have been selecting with this generic rule
·        Each line in the rule is an OR parameter.
·        Important! Take note that the OPC Item is not the parameter name or parameter item name, it is a hierarchy name based on the browse where each branch is separated by a ‘\’ . For this it is imperitave to take note that the Operator equals may not work for OPC item. One should use the endswith term instead. In the example above, the BAL parameter OPC Item is = Blablabla\Program\AC38_002\BAL. TIP: To get a more precise rule. Use set the OPC Item rules as “Ends With \BAL” (For selecting on BAL parameter)
·         Once the parameter tab is done, the TagType tab is done next ( and yes, we do the second tab first ). Since we have selected the only parameters we want from the parameter tab, we can tell MOC that a certain tagtype must have these parameters. Each line in the parameter rules in an AND operator
·        The TagType parameter works line-by-line, it first searches the first tagtype and how it is defined (as explained above, by specifies what parameters it have). If the tag type is taken, it accends down accordingly.
·        Example is that a tag type PID, must have parameter P, I, and D. SO we specify “Ends with P”, “ends with I”, and “Ends With D” as tag type rules. If say MOC finds a A tag wouthout any P,I or D, in then checks the next tag types.
·        By Tag
·        Identification by Tag is basically based on the tag name (have not tried this yet)
  • Alarm MOC Excel Plugin
·        You can install the Excel Plugin by downloading the plugin from OI
·        You Can
  •  clip_image038
  • Save and check the control drawing

Old Computers

Old Personal Computer Hardware SERVERS

  • Processors
    • The Elements
      • Number of Cores
        • How many physical CPU inside the processor
      • Number of Threads
        • How many virtual CPU working. This is shown in the Task Manager.
        • This terms of threads originated from Intel since they developed the ‘Hyper Threading Techonology’ which delivers two threads per physical core.
        • NOTE These are Hardware Threads, not software threads used in programming languages
      • CPU Speed
        • How fast it takes to execute instruction
        • Is important for single running applications
        • Not important for server as they have many applications. Even then, a single Server applications normally use parallel programming.
      • The Cache
        • Enables the CPU to retrieve recently used information quickly
        • In most cases, the more the cache, the fastar the CPU.
      • The Front Side bus (FSB)
        • Connection between CPU and Northbridge
        • Intel doesn’t use FSB, but uses DMI instead
          • Unit in GT/s
      • The System Memory
    • For server, it is good to use XEON due to:
      • It’s reliability, low heat and power consumption.
      • It is meant to run 24 hours.
    • Contrary to popular belief Xeon is not MORE powerful than conventional processor. It’s main advantage is reliability, e.g. It has some other improved reliability features such as ECC memory


Name Medium Specified distance
1000BASE‑CX Twinaxial cabling 25 meters
1000BASE‑SX Multi-mode fiber 220 to 550 meters dependent on fiber diameter and bandwidth[2]
1000BASE‑LX Multi-mode fiber 550 meters[3]
1000BASE‑LX Single-mode fiber 5 km[3]
1000BASE‑LX10 Single-mode fiber using 1,310 nm wavelength 10 km
1000BASE‑ZX Single-mode fiber at 1,550 nm wavelength ~ 70 km
1000BASE‑BX10 Single-mode fiber, over single-strand fiber: 1,490 nm downstream 1,310 nm upstream 10 km
1000BASE‑T Twisted-pair cabling (Cat‑5, Cat‑5e, Cat‑6, or Cat‑7) 100 meters
1000BASE‑TX Twisted-pair cabling (Cat‑6, Cat‑7) 100 meters





Yokogawa EXAOPC

  • Product Model : NTPF100
  • Version
    • R3.70
      • The first ExaOPC version which is able to Connect to CENTUM VP R5 (R5.01)
      • Requires .NET framework 3.5 SP1
    • R.3.70.10
      • Some hot fixes for 3.7
    • R3.71
      • Able to connect to Centum VP R5.02
  • Capacity / Limitations
    • In general, 2000 Item ID’s per second
    • image_thumb7
  • PC Specifications
    • image_thumb9
  • Supported CENTUM
    • image_thumb14
  • Supported Windows
    • image_thumb311111
  • OPC Specifications
    • DA 2.0
    • AE 1.10
    • HDA 1.2
  • Program Component
    • ExaOPC Server Monitor
    • ExaOPC Setup
    • ExaOP Station Viewer
    • OPC Connection Confirm
    • ExaOPC Server Monitor
      • Only available in R3.21 and later
      • Tabs
        • Server Information
          • Number of Item ID
            • This is the number of items registered in the ExaOPC Server. This number will depend on the Tag Dowload.
          • Device Read Data
          • Device Cache Data
          • Write Data
          • Total Data Access
          • Throughput Maximum
          • Screenshot
            • image_thumb161
        • OPC Server Log
        • Number of ItemID
          • Screenshot
            • image_thumb18
        • Number of Data Access
          • Screenshot
            • image_thumb201
  • Troubleshooting
    • Ask
      • Were thre any system changes to the ExaOPC Server?
      • IT Security Model between CENTUM and EXAOPC Needs to match
      • Run PMCDUmpWiz tool
        • C:\Exa\PKGCOM\tool\PMCDumpWiz.exe
        • Output archive can be any zip file
      • Database version on EXAOPC. This is because if ExaOPC is upgraded, the Database version is an older type
      • Check CENTUM and EXA Username and Password, it must match HISENG
      • Can EXAOPC Browse HISENG CS1000PJT folder?
      • Can Ping?
    • Logs
      • Windows Logs
      • ExaOPC Server Monitor Logs on the DA branch
      • HistView Logs
        • C:\Exa\CENTUM\Program\BKHHistView.exe